PSYC unit 2

Which question about the mind versus body controversy MOST represents today’s research by psychologists?
What is the reciprocal relationship between the mind and the body?

he field of psychology originated with th
greek like plato and aristotle

Psychology made the transition from philosophy to a scientific discipline with which event?
Wilhelm Wundt founded the first psychological laboratory to study the mind

described the elements of sensations and perceptions

Which early school of psychology focused on explaining behavior, emotion, and thought as active adaptations to environmental pressures?

The Sea World animal trainers use rewards (reinforcements) to teach whales, sea lions and dolphins to perform tricks. These training techniques are based on principles from which early school of psychology

Which psychologists were proponents of studying only observable behavior and not the mind?
John B. Watson and B. F. Skinner

The psychodynamic school of psychology emphasizes
he unconscious and early childhood experiences

Sigmund Freud founded the early school of ____________ psychology while Jean Piaget influenced the development of the ____________ school of psychology.
psychodynamic; cognitive

Which school of psychology originated with studying the growth of thought and language processes in infants and children
Cognitive psychology

The difference between the cognitive research of Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky is that ____________________.
Jean Piaget recorded the progressive development of infants and children’s thinking through four major stages.

Humanism which developed as a reaction to the behaviorism and psychodynamic schools of psychology, emphasized that
each person is inherently good and motivated to be a healthy functioning individual

Which person is most credited with the school of humanistic psychology and the concept of self-actualization?
Abraham Maslow

hich statement about contemporary psychology perspectives is TRUE?
Each contemporary psychology perspective shares important information that influences the research of other perspectives.

Research based on the _____________ perspective would focus on the connections of the nervous system and the neurotransmitters that affect feelings such as of sadness and despair.

The invention of computer technology in the 1950’s led to the development of the contemporary perspective of ________ psychology.

Neuroimaging techniques are used by which contemporary perspectives?
Behavioral neuroscience, biological and cognitive

A current research study has found that parenting styles differ among people from the United States, China, and Australia. This type of research best represents which contemporary psychology perspective?

Which contemporary perspective in psychology is correctly matched with its emphasis?
Developmental: emphasizes how cognitive, physical, and socio-emotional factors change and show stability across the lifespan

Maria is experiencing several personal setbacks, including academic problems, marital difficulties, and a dyingmother who needs her help. Maria is feeling overwhelmed, sad, and lonely. A psychologist who represents the _________ perspective could best help her.

A psychologist is interested in studying how the character traits that a person has inherited influence the ability to handle stress. This study most likely reflects the contemporary __________ perspective.
Individual differences/personality

A study is conducted to determine the extent of damage, if any, to the brains of three groups of people who have had high blood pressure for either 5 years, 10 years, or 15 years. This study is an example of ________ research

Research conducted specifically for the purpose of solving practical problems and improving quality of life is called _____________.
applied research

A __________ is a general, tentative explanation that tries to account for diverse findings on the relationships between variables and therefore provides ideas for future research, whereas a __________ is a specific prediction about the relationship between two or more variables that is to be tested.
theory, hypothesis

Which of the following is the correct sequence of activities for a psychologist utilizing the scientific research method?
Write hypothesis, conduct study, analyze data, write conclusion, publish article

“Children who play violent video games will become more aggressive.” Based on the scientific research method, this statement is most likely a __________.

A precise statement of how a variable in a study will be observed and measured is called a(n) __________.
operational defintion

A researcher hypothesizes that children who play violent video games will become more aggressive. The variables “play violent video games” and “become more aggressive” are ____________ variables.

Which of the following is a violation of the APA Ethical Code for Human Research?
When the experiment is over, the researcher tells the participant “thank you and goodbye” without disclosing any information or answering any questions.

he ethical requirement of informed consent means that participants ___________________.
must be informed as much as possible about the purpose and conditions of the research, and that they are free to withdraw from the research at any time

Which of the following is not an APA Guideline on Humane Care and Use of Animals in Research?
Free choice about participating

A case study is a(n
in-depth investigation of a single individual or a small group of individuals, often involving information from a wide variety of sources

In survey research, the term sample refers to a(n)
carefully selected segment of the larger group that is to be studied

Which of the following is an important strength of the survey method?
Researchers are able to gather information about a very large group of people based on a representative sample of that group.

n the 1970’s, a 13-year-old girl named Genie was found locked in a bedroom and strapped to a potty chair. She had been isolated from the world and severely neglected to the point that she did not have social skills or the ability to speak. For the next several years, researchers studied Genie’s ability to acquire speech and social skills. This type of research is called a
case study

The primary advantage of naturalistic observation is to
detect natural behavior patterns

Jane Goodall’s research with chimpanzees can best be described as
naturalistic observatio

Ronald thinks that children who eat at fast-food restaurants, particularly McDonald’s, tend to be overweight, so he conducts a naturalistic observation of children at the local McDonald’s Restaurant. What could be problematic about his observations?
observer bias

A(n) __________ is a measure of how strongly two variables are related to one another.

Professor Hill wants to determine whether the amount of study time is related to final exam test scores. Before taking the final exam, her student’s self-report the number of hours spent in preparing for the final. Which research design will she use to conduct her study?

A correlation coefficient can indicate
the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables

In a correlation research design, the variable that has been omitted from the hypothesis but still produces an observed relationship with the other variables is called a(n) _
common-causal variable

A variable that the experimenter manipulates is called a(n)
independent variable

A researcher investigates the effects of room temperature on test performance as measured by participants test scores. In this experiment, the dependent variable is _
test performance

An advantage of the experimental research design is that _____________________.
initial equivalence is created among the participants for each of the experimental conditions

The difference between a true experiment and a quasi-experiment is that ______________________.
quasi-experiments do not randomly assign participants to groups

When a researcher has reason to believe that something other than the manipulation of the independent variable has caused a change in the dependent variable, the researcher must look for a(n) _____________ as an explanation.
confounding variable

occur(s) when the experimenter knows the study’s hypothesis and treats the participants in the experimental condition differently from the participants in the control condition of the experiment.
experimenter bias

When both the researcher and the participants do not know whether the participants are in the experimental or control group, it is known as a ______________ experiment.

The branchlike fibers extending in clusters from the neuron’s cell body are called __________.

function of soma
keep cell alive

axon is
long, tubelike structure extending from a neuron’s cell body

terminal buttons are found at the ends of

dendrite is to axon as
sending is to receiving

Which of the following sequences accurately reflects the route followed by nerve impulses when one neuron communicates with another?
dendrite, cell body, axon

What is the term for the insulating material that covers some axons?

What are the gaps in the myelin sheath called?
Nodes of Ranvier

synapse is a

What neurotransmitter is important if there is an injury and pain relief is necessary?

alzherimer so what is low?

If a person is shot, and the bullet destroys the part of the brain called the _____________, which maintains basic life functions (heart rate, breathing), there is virtually no chance for surviving that injury.

Which part is not considered part of the brain stem?

The part of the brain stem called the _________ has been shown to be related to arousal in lab animals; when this part is stimulated, the animal is awake; when it’s severed (cut), the animal goes into a coma.
reticular formation

Jim’s friends noticed that he was stumbling around, consistently losing his balance while walking. It’s possible that his ___________ has been negatively affected or injured on some way.

The reason the area of the brain that includes the brain stem is called the “old brain” is that
oldest brain region

Sally was hospitalized after a car accident, and due to injury to her hippocampus, she has trouble with
newer memories

By stimulating the __________ part of the limbic system in lab animals, researchers found that the animal will display anger/rage instantly

Researchers discovered that the hypothalamus helps to regulate basic drives, like hunger, thirst, and sexuality. Another interesting aspect of the hypothalamus is that it ___________________.
serves as a reward center

The human brain’s more advanced structure, compared to most animal brains, is the __________________.
cerebral cortex

Contralateral control describes ____________________.
one hemisphere’s ability to receive sensations and control movement of the opposite side of the body

The ___________ cortex sends signals to move our muscles, whereas the ____________ cortex receives information about bodily sensations.
motor; somatosensory

The visual cortex is located in the _________ lobe.

The _________ cortex is part of the parietal lobe.

Lateralization of brain function refers to the ___________ of the brain.
difference between hemispheres

Which of the following best describes the process of neuroplasticit
When parts of the brain compensate for damages to another part of the brain

Neurogenesis refers to the brain’s ability to ______________.
form brand new neurons

Julie fell during an accident at work and suffered damage that affected her ability to comprehend language. After a few months of therapy, her ability to understand language has improved. This most likely demonstrate

The two separate hemispheres are connected by the ___________.
corpus callosum

Brains of cadavers have provided helpful information about the _____________.
structure of brain

Which method used to study the human brain has not enabled psychologists to get a good picture of human brain functions?
cadaver studies

The electroencephalograph is a method of studying the brain that
records electrical activity produced by the bran’s neurons by using electrodes

An advantage of the EEG is that it ____________, and a disadvantage of the EEG is that it ___________.
provides good information on electrical brain activity; does not provide clear pictures of brain structure

A noninvasive technique that uses magnetic fields to map brain activity by measuring changes in the brain’s blood flow and oxygen levels is called

An advantage of the PET scan is that it ___________, and a disadvantage is that it ___________.
provides good imaged of brain activity; an invasive imaging technique

A difference between the fMRI and the TMS is that
casual conclusions about the influence of brain structures can be drawn by TMS but not by fMRI

Diamond’s study of Albert Einstein’s brain attempted to provide evidence that intelligence is determined by the number of glial cells in an individual’s brain. What brain method did she use for her study?

When a person has a stroke, a blood clot prevents oxygen from getting to a part of the brain and causes neurons to die. Which is the best method for scientists to learn more about this kind of damage to the brain?
lesion studies

Which neuroimaging technique can be used as a treatment for certain physical and psychological disorders?

Jack is injected with a small amount of radioactive glucose and then lies in a scanner. He is given a task—to think about his favorite song—as the scanner records the movement and location of the glucose his brain. A computer analyzes the data and produces a color-coded image of his brain activity. Jack is receiving the imaging technique called ___________________

Melanie is suffering from severe depression, and medication has not seemed to help. Her physician suggests that she try a new, noninvasive brain technique to relieve her symptoms. This technique is called __________________

Eisenberger and her colleagues conducted research to determine if a person’s emotional pain originated in the same brain location as did physical pain. They tested their hypothesis by collecting brain activity data when participants played cyberball with others and then again when participants were excluded from playing cyberbal with othersl. What brain technique did the researchers use to collect the participants brain activity?

Dylan, 8-years old, has appeared to have had an epileptic seizure. He is rushed to the ER for treatment, and the admitting physician first orders some tests to be conducted on Dylan’s brain to determine a diagnosis. Dylan will most likely receive a (an) __________

Laboratory scientists want to study the effects of a specific neuron in the brains of mice. What brain technique are they most likely to use?