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Psyc Final

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Which behaviorist advocated the use of reinforcement over punishment whenever possible?
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Skinner
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What is the term for when every instance of a behavior is rewarded?
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Continuous reinforcement
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The term reinforcement is used to describe anything that has which one of the following effects?
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Increasing the frequency of a behavior
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___________ is credited with laying the foundation for the study of classical conditioning in psychology.
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Pavlov
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Christy no longer eats egg salad sandwiches. Some time ago, she became very sick and vomited for hours after consuming a sandwich in which the mayonnaise must have spoiled. Christy’s example best illustrates ____________________.
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conditioned taste aversion
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Reinforcing successive steps towards a behavioral goal is called
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shaping
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Which one of the following scenarios exemplifies extinction?
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Alexis is a former cocaine user. Now that she no longer uses, her hands no longer shake and her heart no longer pounds when she hears a car pull into her driveway, like her dealer used to do in his car.
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Negative reinforcement happens when you do which one of the following?
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Remove something and behavior increases
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Which one of the following best describes operant conditioning?
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Learning by associating reflexes and instincts with a stimulus
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Extinction can be used to ________________ behaviors.
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decrease maladaptive
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Which one of the following scenarios best exemplifies spontaneous recovery?
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Alexis is a former cocaine user in recovery. After a relapse, though, her hands shake and her heart pounds when she hears a car pull into her drive, like her dealer used to do in his car.
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Blake rewards his dog with a treat after it sits a set number of times in a row but he changes the number of required sit behaviors before he gives a treat. Blake is experimenting with which type of schedule?
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Variable-ratio
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How does shaping help people learn new behaviors?
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It reinforces small incremental behaviors that lead to new behaviors.
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Watson and Raynor’s (1920) found that Little Albert’s conditioned fear was elicited not only by a rat, but also by a number of similar objects. Little Albert’s example illustrates stimulus _______.
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generalization
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Albert Bandura is most famously known for his studies involving which of the following?
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Children watching aggressive behaviors directed toward an inflatable Bobo doll.
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Lauren is teaching a psychology class and her students decide to play a trick on her. The whole class decides to pay attention and look her in the eye when she is on the left side of the room and ignore her and look at their phones when she is on the right side of the room. Lauren gets frustrated with the class but unconsciously she spends more time teaching from the left side of the room. What are the students doing to Lauren?
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Positively reinforcing her for teaching from the left side of the classroom
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Social learning theory is best described by its emphasis on which one of the following?
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Cognitive variables and learning through observation
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Punishments are ineffective and not actually punishments when they end up doing which one of the following?
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Increasing the frequency of a behavior
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Which statement best defines observational learning?
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Learning a new skill by first watching someone else perform the task.
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Psychologists use the term _________ to refer to a relatively permanent change in knowledge or behavior resulting from experience.
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learning
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Which one of the following is a potential outcome of anorexia nervosa?
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Death, Osteoporosis, and Menstrual irregularity.
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As adults get older, their basal metabolic rate tends to _________________.
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decrease
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When people are motivated by basic, instinctual, or physiological needs, they are activating a _________________.
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primary drive
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Sensation seekers often engage in activities that most other people consider highly dangerous and outrageous. From a motivational standpoint, which one of the following statements is the best explanation for their behavior?
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They have a higher need for arousal to reach homeostasis.
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_________ is the broad term used to explain the impetus or force that initiates, sustains, and determines the strength of our efforts toward specific goals
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Motivation
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________________ is an individual’s own determination of his or her sense of being male or female
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Gender identity
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Which one of the following is a common reason for procrastinating on a major assignment for a student with a high fear of failure?
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Having absolutely no self-worth attached to success on the project
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Homosexuality is a sexual orientation in which the person has a sexual attraction to the same sex.
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People who identify as homosexual and bisexual frequently experience discrimination.
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Maslow’s hierarchy of needs can explain why people go foraging for food in fields that are known to be filled with landmines. Which one of the following statements is the explanation for this risky behavior?
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Physiological needs, such as hunger, are lower on the hierarchy than safety needs
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Researchers hypothesize that each person has a certain weight that the body will work to maintain over time. This weight is referred to as ___________________.
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set point
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A measure for motivation that involves people looking at ambiguous pictures and telling stories about what is going on in the picture is called the _______________.
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Surveys, projective measures, and interviews
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Which one of the following characteristics is NOT associated with bulimia nervosa?
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Below-normal weight
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The line of psychological study that focuses on promoting healthy and satisfying lives from the perspective of viewing normal and high functioning individuals referred to as _____________________ psychology.
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positive
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Many people claim that they do better under pressure. This fits within which model of motivational theory?
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Arousal
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Anxiety and self-doubt may arise in people with a high degree of need for competence when they also have which one of the following?
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Low self-efficacy
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Effective weight management is best mastered when attention is given to which one of the following?
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Behavioral, emotional, and motivational goals together
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Which one of the following is an established cause that promotes differences between males and females?
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Cultural expectations, hormones, and parental guidance.
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Which one of the following characteristics is often observed in both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa?
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Excessive exercise
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We experience ____________ when we engage in activities because we find them enjoyable or interesting.
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intrinsic motivation
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Some employers provide a high degree of personal freedom in setting schedules, working on projects, and assembling teams to get work completed. Within the self-determination theory, which one of the primary needs is being addressed in these workplaces?
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Autonomy
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The desire to learn, succeed, and excel in achievement settings is known as ___________________.
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achievement motivation
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In achievement motivation, motivational goals that focus primarily on receiving benefits, awards, or rewards for completing the activity are classified as which type of general motivation?
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Extrinsic
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When someone initiates a sudden crash diet, which one of the following is most likely to occur?
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Metabolic rate will slow
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Maslow’s self-actualization theory is viewed as a “humanistic theory” mostly because it does which one of the following?
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Addresses the ‘whole person,’ rather than just cognitive or behavioral views
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Which one of the following influences to obesity are related to the process of “overeating” in the US?
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Americans tend to burn fewer calories due to a more sedentary lifestyle, eating comfort foods when under stress, and restaurants tend to serve larger portion sizes than required.
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Betty has recently given birth to a healthy baby boy, Curt. When Curt cries, Betty goes to him, tries to figure out the reason for his crying, and then promptly does all she can to meet his needs. According to Erikson’s theory, Curt is well on his way toward mastering which developmental conflict?
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Trust versus mistrust
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Which one of the following is not a category of temperament?
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Resistant
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What is a teratogen?
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A substance that can cross the placental barrier and harm an unborn child
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_____% of children are sexual abused by someone they know and trust.
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90
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In which one of the following stages can children understand conservation and reason logically about objects?
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Concrete operations
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In his study on conformity and obedience, Stanley Milgram instructed subjects to administer electric shocks to a “learner” they could not see. Milgram found that a majority of the subjects responded in which one of the following ways?
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Delivered shocks up to the highest level
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Drinking alcohol during pregnancy has been linked to
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fetal death
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The _________ parenting style involves high responsiveness and high demandingness.
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authoritative
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Which one of the following is the placenta’s function?
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Provide the fetus with nutrients and remove waste from the fetus
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The four childhood goals of social development, according to Erikson, are
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trust, autonomy, initiative, and industry.
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Which one of the following is the correct sequence of prenatal development?
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Zygote, embryo, fetus
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Piaget’s stage of development between the ages of 2 and 6, in which children have a preliminary understanding of the physical world, is called the ________ stage.
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preoperational
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Organs begin to develop during the ______ period.
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embryonic
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Harlow discovered that infant rhesus monkeys preferred to spend time with a soft, cuddly surrogate mother instead of a wire surrogate mother that dispensed food. This illustrates the importance of _______.
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contact comfort
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Piaget is best known for his interest in the process of ______ development.
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cognitive
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All of the following are effective ways to soothe a crying baby except
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allowing the baby to “cry it out”
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Developmental psychology attempts to understand which one of the following?
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Why people change and stay the same across the life span
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An attachment is best defined as a strong affectionate tie that binds a person to a(n) ___________.
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intimate companion
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Social influence is characterized by which one of the following descriptions?
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The power that society has over our interactions and behaviors with other individuals and in groups
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Which one of the following statements defines a social norm?
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An expectations or guideline that that tell a person how to act in any situation.
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The act of teaching more complex concepts when students are ready is called _______.
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scaffolding
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______________ psychology is the study of development, how individuals change and remain the same over the life span, as they grow from infants into children, adolescents, and adults.
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Developmental
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Which theorist suggested that cognitive development occurs in stages?
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Piaget
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Mrs. Carson cut Ally’s hotdog into eight pieces and Nicole’s into six pieces. Nicole cried because she thought she wasn’t getting as much hotdog as Ally. Piaget would say that Nicole doesn’t understand the principle of _______.
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conservation
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Reflexes are innate responses to environmental stimulation that appear to be linked to
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survival.
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According to Rogers, parents need to show their children __________________.
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unconditional positive regard
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Cattell defines a source trait in which one of the following ways?
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Underlying personality dimension
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Self-report bias is a disadvantage of which methods of personality assessment?
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Interviews and personality inventories
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The five-factor model includes which five basic personality factors?
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extraversion, neuroticism, conscientiousness, agreeableness, openness
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According to Horney, unhealthy personality development is rooted in which one of the following?
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Inadequate parental acceptance and nurturing
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The reality principle guides the
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ego
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Freud sees humans as motivated primarily by an urge to _____________.
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obtain pleasure
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Tests with a forced-choice format are called __________ personality tests.
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objective
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Freud proposed that the stages of development usually appear in what general order?
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Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
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Which one of the following is an interdisciplinary field that studies the effects of genetics and heredity on behavior?
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Behavioral genetics
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The ______________ theory of personality states that personality is a result of an array of relatively stable personality characteristics.
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trait
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The most fundamental needs in Maslow’s theory are __________________.
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physiological
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Which trait theory of personality is currently the most popular among researchers?
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Five-Factor Model
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The _______ theory of personality states that personality is a result of interactions between one’s environment and thought processes.
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social-cognitive
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According to the social-cognitive theory of personality, we may think differently about ourselves in changing situations because of which one of the following situations?
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We may have different cognitive evaluations of the situations.
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____________ psychology is the scientific exploration of the aspects of human experience that encourage people and their communities to thrive.
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Positive
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Albert Bandura is a personality theorist who is better known for which theory of learned behavior?
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Social learning
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Trait personality theorist Raymond Cattell is best known for which one of the following theories of personality?
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16-Factor theory
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Maslow spoke of human needs in terms of a (n) _______________.
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hierarchy
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What is the heritability range of the Big 5 personality traits?
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41% to 61%
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Projective tests aim to uncover people’s unconscious conflicts, psychological defenses, motives, and personality traits using which one of the following methods?
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Ambiguous pictures
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The Rorschach Inkblot Test and the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) are examples of what type of personality assessment?
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Projective tests
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______ is the set of characteristics; attitudes, interests, behavioral patterns, emotional responses, social roles, and other traits
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Personality.
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The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory is an example of
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an objective measure
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Research on trait heritabilities shows that which one of the following?
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Both genetics and the non-shared environment are important
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In Freudian psychology, a sociopathic serial murder would be said to have which one of the following?
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Lack an adequate superego
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Humanistic psychology set the stage for a more _________ approach to psychology due to its attention to healthy personalities.
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positive
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Which theory about helping behavior states that people weigh the costs and benefits to themselves of helping prior to acting?
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Social exchange theory
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Which one of the following best illustrates Self-Perception Theory?
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People assume their attitudes from their own behavior.
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Does a person’s culture play a part in the degree of conformity one may display?
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Yes. Individualistic cultures encourage nonconformity, while communal cultures stress conformity.
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Stereotypes of aging are ___________.
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held by both younger and older adults
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Cultures that place a high value on the well being of the group over that of a single individual are termed ______________________.
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collectivist.
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The “graying of America” indicates that
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more individuals are living longer.
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Darley and Latane found, through experiments, that the more people that are involved in a situation, the less the likelihood that people would come to the assistance of others. This is called _______________.
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bystander effect
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Social norms are important because they do which one of the following?
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Make life more predictable and ultimately less dangerous.
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People who possess a high degree of religiosity tend to do which one of the following?
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Care what others think of them as representatives of their faith group, exhibit higher degrees of helping behavior, and Attend religious services frequently
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Many times people do not have all the information regarding a particular situation, so they are more likely to conform to someone else’s opinion because they assume that person has the missing pieces of information. This is known as which type of social influence?
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Informational
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A social psychological explanation for why people tend to join violent riots or lynch mobs when they would not normally do so is called _______________.
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deindividuation
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Which one of the following might prevent people from changing an attitude even though their behavior clearly does not match up to their espoused beliefs?
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Justification
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Which statement BEST illustrates the concept of an imaginary audience?
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Why is everyone looking at me?
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According to the idea of groupthink, the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster could have been avoided if which one of the following had occurred?
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They had listened to the dissenting opinions of certain engineers regarding the safety of the mission.
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Which theoretical perspective deals with understanding of attitude formation in terms of what we absorb throughout our lives through development?
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Learning Theories
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DSM stands for
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diagnostic and statistical manual.
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A recurrent, intrusive thought that causes anxiety and is difficult to control is a(n)
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obsession.
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A woman’s preoccupation with the thought of her house burning down makes her become so troubled that she must begin to get ready for work an hour earlier than is necessary. She needs the extra time as she compulsively checks and rechecks all of the electrical appliances and outlets in her home. A doctor is likely to conclude that this behavior warrants a diagnosis of
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obsessive-compulsive disorder
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All of the following are symptoms of borderline personality disorder EXCEPT
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being a loner
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An important neurotransmitter involved in schizophrenic symptoms is
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dopamine.
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Delusions can be described as __________. For example, one is convinced that one is the reincarnation of a famous historical figure
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false beliefs
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Free-floating anxiety is a feature of
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generalized anxiety disorder.
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Jane has black-out periods where she can’t remember what she did or where she was. She found clothing in her closet that she would never wear and doesn’t know how it got there. When she goes to see the doctor she introduces herself as Suzy. Jane seems to be exhibiting
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dissociative identity disorder
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The __________ model argues for an interaction of biological predispositions with a range of psychosocial stressors in explaining the onset and severity of schizophrenia.
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multifactorial
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The difference between depression and major depression is that
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with major depression not only are the feelings more intense but the dysfunction is more pervasive.
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The fact that some psychological disorders exist within certain cultures but not in others is called
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culture-bound.
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The insanity plea is a legal defense for behavior based on evidence of
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a psychological disorder.
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Systematized delusions of grandeur, persecution, and/or jealousy, often involving themes of persecution and wrongdoing, are observed in patients diagnosed with
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paranoid schizophrenia.
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Research evidence supports the theory that _______ is a frequent characteristic of people with antisocial personality disorder.
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lack of guilt
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Pessimism and self-criticism are __________ factors in depression.
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cognitive
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While anxiety is an appropriate response to a threat, it becomes evidence of a disorder when it
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is excessive.
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Which of the following suggests that mood disorders have a biological basis?
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There are high concordance rates for bipolar disorder in identical twins.
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A client avoids talking about their relationship with their father. The psychoanalyst asks them to talk about this relationship. The client becomes restless and claims, “There is nothing to tell.” This is indicative of
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resistance
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A goal of psychoanalysis was to strengthen the psychic structure that Freud called the
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ego.
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According to behavior modification, if a habit is not reinforced it will become
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extinguished.
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Advantages of group therapy include the following except
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feedback is always positive.
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Behavior therapies are particularly effective in treating problems of
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self-control
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ECT is currently used mainly for people diagnosed with
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major depression who do not respond to antidepressants.
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Gestalt therapy differs from client-centered therapy in that Gestalt approaches are
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more directive
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Humanistic therapies are focused on
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strengthening the self.
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In client-centered therapy, the therapist tries to set aside his or her own values and experiences and view the world through the client’s
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frame of reference
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Systematic desensitization procedures assume that fear is a(n) __________ response.
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conditioned or learned
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The first asylums failed and aggravated the conditions of the mentally ill because
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the conditions were overcrowded and there was no treatment.
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Research regarding the effectiveness of biological therapies would agree with which of the following?
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Patients should always be encouraged to seek psychotherapy with biological treatments so they don’t rely on medication alone.
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Most antianxiety drugs belong to the chemical class known as
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benzodiazepines.
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Mary and Ted are working with a therapist to strengthen their communication, express their uncomfortable feelings and learn to share in the decision making process. They are involved in _______ therapy.
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couple
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__________ therapists focus on beliefs and attitudes that create and compound their clients’ psychological problems.
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Cognitive
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Which of the following therapies has shown more wide spread applicability and success?
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cognitive-behavioral
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Which forms of therapy tend to work with well-educated, verbal, and highly motivated clients?
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psychodynamic and client-centered