PSYC EXAM 3 (Ch. 18)

question

Identify the characteristic of postformal thought. A. ability to characterize experience in a stable way B. understanding that information is absolute C. objective, logical thinking that devalues personal experience D. understanding that one’s own perspective is one of many potentially valid views
answer

D
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A new idea that integrates an original idea and its opposite is referred to as a(n): A. counterthesis. B. thesis. C. antithesis. D. synthesis.
answer

D
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The study in which adults were asked to suggest solutions to 15 real-life problems demonstrated that: A. it was very difficult for adults to generate more than one solution. B. familiarity with situations enabled adults to be more flexible. C. concrete thinkers generated the most solutions. D. problems that were particularly emotional immobilized many adults.
answer

B
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An adolescent ______ is most likely to reason less maturely than a young adult. A. studying for a calculus exam B. debating whether teens should be allowed to drink C. researching the history of the U.S. presidency D. learning about the workings of refrigerators
answer

B
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Compared to formal operational thinking, postformal thought is characterized by: A. rationality. B. rigidity. C. idealism. D. mysticism.
answer

A
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Most emerging adults struggle with ______; however, adults gradually master it as their cognition matures. A. time management B. distributed practice C. being too dialectical D. extreme logic
answer

A
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According to Fowler’s religious stages, faith, like other aspects of cognition, progresses from a(n) ______ view of life to a(n) ______ view. A. complex, unselfish; altruistic B. adversity; acceptance C. simple, self centered, one-sided; complex, unselfish D. unselfish; selfish
answer

C
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In an essay, Michelle begins by writing that knowing the truth sets people free. In her next paragraph, she opposes this idea with the idea that knowing the truth often involves learning about limitations and constraints on freedom. In her third paragraph, Michelle integrates these two perspectives. Michelle’s essay best demonstrates: A. dialectical thinking. B. subjective thinking. C. moral reasoning. D. inconsistent thinking.
answer

A
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Grappling with personal and social problems during late adolescence and emerging adulthood using both emotion and logic demonstrates ______ thought. A. nonformal B. postformal C. informal D. preformal
answer

B
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Research has revealed that college education leads students to become: A. less tolerant of differing religious and social views. B. overwhelmingly liberal in political philosophy. C. less committed to values of any kind. D. more tolerant of differing religious and political views.
answer

D
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Emerging adults usually exhibit more mature reasoning ability than adolescents when a topic is: A. age-related. B. emotionally charged. C. objectively stated. D. political in nature.
answer

B
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A possible fifth stage of cognitive development that characterizes adult thinking is: A. postformal thought. B. semiformal thought. C. informal thought. D. preformal thought.
answer

A
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A common logical error of emerging adults is delay discounting, the tendency to: A. undervalue events in the future. B. use emotion instead of logic. C. become more practical. D. use postformal thought.
answer

A
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Postformal thought
answer

a proposed adult stage of cognitive development, following Piaget’s four stages, that goes beyond adolescent thinking by being more practical, more flexible, and more dialectical (that is, more capable of combining contradictory elements into a comprehensive whole).
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Delay discounting
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the tendency to undervalue, or downright ignore, future consequences and rewards in favor of more immediate gratification.
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Subjective thought
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thinking that is strongly influenced by personal qualities of the individual thinker, such as past experiences, cultural assumptions, and goals for the future.
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Objective thought
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thinking that is not influenced by the thinker’s personal qualities but instead involves facts and numbers that are universally considered true and valid.
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Stereotype threat
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the possibility that one’s appearance or behavior will be misread to confirm another person’s oversimplified, prejudiced attitudes.
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Dialectical thought
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the most advanced cognitive process, characterized by the ability to consider a thesis and its antithesis simultaneously and thus to arrive at a synthesis. _________________ makes possible an ongoing awareness of pros and cons, advantages and disadvantages, possibilities and limitations.
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Thesis
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a proposition or statement of belief; the first stage of the process of dialectical thinking.
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Antithesis
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a proposition or statement of belief that opposes the thesis; the second stage of the process of dialectical thinking.
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Synthesis
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a new idea that integrates the thesis and its antithesis, thus representing a new and more comprehensive level of truth; the third stage of the process of dialectical thinking.
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Morality of care
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in Gilligan’s view, moral principles that reflect the tendency of females to be reluctant to judge right and wrong in absolute terms because they are socialized to be nurturant, compassionate, and nonjudgmental.
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Morality of justice
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in Gilligan’s view, moral principles that reflect the tendency of males to emphasize justice over compassion, judging right and wrong in absolute terms.
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Defining Issues Test (DIT)
answer

a series of questions developed by James Rest and designed to assess respondents’ level of moral development by having them rank possible solutions to moral dilemmas.

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