PSYC 313 Chapter 1 (Exam 1)

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Development
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Pattern of movement or change that begins at conception and continues through the human life span.
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Normative History – Graded Influences
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Life span perspectives that are common to people of a particular generation because of historical circumstances. (Example: World War II)
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Normative Age – Graded Influences
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Life span perspectives that are similar for individuals in a particular age group. (Example: puberty and menopause)
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Nonnormative Life Events
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Life span perspectives that are unusual occurrences that have a major impact on an individual’s life. (Example: Winning the Lottery)
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Culture
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Behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a group that are passed on from generation to generation.
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Cross-Cultural Studies
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Comparison of one culture with one or more other cultures.
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Ethnicity
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________ is based on cultural heritage, nationality characteristics, race, religion, and language.
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Life – Span Perspective
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The perspective that development is lifelong, multidimensional, multidirectional, plastic, multidisciplinary, and contextual; that it involves growth, maintenance, and regulation; and that it is constructed through biological, sociocultural, and individual factors working together.
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Context
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The setting in which development occurs, which is influenced by historical, economic, social, and cultural factors.
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Ethnicity
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A range of characteristics rooted in cultural heritage, including nationality, race, religion, and language.
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Socioeconomic Status (SES)
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Grouping of people with similar occupational, educational, and economic characteristics.
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Gender
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Characteristics of people as males or females.
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Social Policy
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National Government’s course of actin designed to promote the welfare of its citizens.
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Biological Processes
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Changes in an individual’s physical nature. (Example: genes inherited from parents, or cardiovascular decline)
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Cognitive Processes
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Changes in an individual’s thought, intelligence, and language.
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Socioemotional Processes
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Changes in an individual’s relationships with other people, emotions, and their personality.
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Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
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Explores links between development, cognitive processes, and the brain.
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Developmental Social Neuroscience
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Examines connections between socioemotional processes, development, and the brain.
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Biological Age
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Person’s age in terms of biological health. (Involves knowing functional capacities of a person’s vital organs)
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Psychological Age
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Individual’s adaptive capacities compared with those of other individuals of the same chronological age.
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Social Age
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Connectedness with others and the social roles individuals adopt. (Ex: Having older friends and getting along with them well)
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Nature – Nurture Issue
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Concerns the extent to which development is influenced by nature and by nurture.
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Nature
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Biological inheritance side of Nature – Nurture Issue
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Nurture
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Environmental experiences side of Nature – Nurture Issue.
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Stability – Change Issue
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The degree to which early traits and characteristics persist through life or change. (Ex: becoming a transgender)
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Continuity – Discontinuity Issue
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The degree to which development involves either gradual, cumulative change (continuity) or distinct ages (discontinuity). (Ex: growth spurts)
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Theory
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An interrelated, coherent set of ideas that helps to explain phenomena and facilitate prediction.
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Hypotheses
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Specific assumptions and predictions that can be tested to determine their accuracy.
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Hypotheses
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Assertions or predictions, often derived from theories, that can be tested.
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Psychoanalytic Theories
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Describe development as primarily unconscious and heavily colored by emotion. (Focuses mainly on early childhood experiences)
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Psychoanalytic Theories
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Theories holding that development depends primarily on the unconscious mind and is heavily couched in emotion, that behavior is merely a surface characteristic, that is it important to analyze the symbolic meanings of behavior, and that early experiences are important in development.
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Freud
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_______ developed a technic called psychoanalysis.
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Erikson’s Theory
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A psychoanalytic theory in which eight stages of psychosocial development unfold throughout the human lifespan. Each stage consists of a unique developmental task that confronts individuals with a crisis that must be faced.
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Piaget’s Theory
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The theory that children construct their understanding of the world and go through four stages of cognitive development.
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Piaget
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Who is the father of cognitive psychology??
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Operations (Piaget’s)
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Internalized mental actions that allow children to do mentally what they previously could only do physically.
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Vygotsky’s Theory
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A sociocultural cognitive theory that emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development.
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Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theories
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Theories holding that development can be described in terms of the behaviors learned through interactions with the environment.
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Skinner’s Operant Conditioning
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Development consists of the pattern of behavioral changes that are brought about by rewards and punishments.
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Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory
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The theory that behavior, environment, and person/cognitive factors are important in understanding development.
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Observational Learning
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Learning that occurs through observing others.
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Skinner
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For _______, the key aspect of development is behavior.
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Bandura
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_________ is the leading architect of social cognitive theory.
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Ethology
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An approach that stresses that behavior is strongly influenced by biology, tied to evolution, and characterized by critical or sensitive periods.
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Ethology
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Study of the behavior of animals in their natural habitat.
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Imprinting
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The rapid, innate learning that involves attachment to the first moving object seen. This specific point in time is called the critical period.
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John Bowlby
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__________ said that attachment to a caregiver over the first year of life has important consequences throughout the life span.
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Sensitive Period
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Time during infancy when attachment should occur in order to promote optimal development of social relationships.
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Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory
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Envionmental system theory that, which focuses on five environmental systems: microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem.
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Microsystem (Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory)
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The setting in which the individual lives. These contexts include the person’s family, peers, school, and neighborhood.
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Mesosystem (Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory)
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Involves relations between microsystems or connections between contexts. (Example: relation of family experiences to school experiences)
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Exosystem (Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory)
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Consists of links between social setting in which the individual does not have an active role and the individuals immediate context. (Example: Child’s experience at home may be influenced by a mother’s experiences at work)
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Macrosystem (Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory)
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Involves the culture in which Individual’s live in.
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Chronosystem (Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory)
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Consists of patterning of environmental events and transitions over the life course, as well as sociohistorical circumstances. (Example: divorce is one transition and sociohistorical example is woman pursing a career)
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Eclectic Theoretical Orientation
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An approach that selects and uses whatever is considered the best in many theories.
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Laboratory
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Controlled setting in which many of the complex factors of the real world are removed.
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Naturalistic Observation
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Studies that involve observing behavior in real world settings and making no effort to manipulate or control the situation.
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Standardized Test
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A test that is given with uniform procedures for administration and scoring.
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Case Study
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In-depth examination of a single individual.
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Descriptive Research
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Research that designed to observe and record behavior.
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Correctional Research
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Research that describes the strength of the relationship between two or more events and characteristics.
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Correlation Coefficient
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A number based on statistical analysis that is used to describe the degree of association between two variables.
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Experiment
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One or more of the factors are manipulated while all other factors are held constant.
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Cross-Sectional Approach
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A research strategy in which individuals of different ages are compared at one time.
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Longitudinal Approach
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A research strategy in which the same individuals are studied over a period of time, usually several years or more.
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Cohort Effects
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Effects that are due to a subject’s time of birth, era, or generation but not age.
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Freud and Erikson
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Which psychologists were involved with the psychoanalytic theories?
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Piaget, Vygotsky, and Information – processing
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Which was involved with the cognitive theories?
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Skinner and Bandura
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Which psychologists were involved with the behavior and social cognitive theories?
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Lorenz
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Which psychologists were involved with the ethological theory?
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Bronfenbrenner
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Which psychologists were involved with the ecological theory?
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Socioemotional
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Changes in relationships, emotions, and personality are examples of __________ processes that affect development
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Stability – Change
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The __________ issue involves the extent to which early traits and characteristics persist throughout life or alter one’s life
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Integrity vs. Despair
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According to Erikson’s theory, individuals reflect on the past during their final stage of development, which is known as…
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ethological; ecological
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Whereas __________ theory emphasizes biological factors, ___________ theory stresses environmental factors.
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Experimental Research
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The best way to study causality is through.
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Informed Consent
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Researchers should tell all participants what their research participation will involve and its potential risks. This is known as…
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Plasticity
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______ means the capacity for change.
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Contextual
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Events such as the terrorist attacks of 9/11/2001 influence the development of individuals. This supports the life-span perspective that development is…
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A biological and genetic perspective.
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The \”nature\” part of the nature – nurture issue in development can be described as:
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Life – Span
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Melissa is intrigued with how people change from infancy through late adulthood, she should study __________ development.
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Operant
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According to Skinner’s ___________ conditioning theory, the consequences of a behavior produce changes in the probability of the behavior’s occurrence.
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Social interaction and culture
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Which of the following are key characteristics of Vygotsky’s theory??
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Cognitive
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Individual _________ processes refer to the change in an person’s thought, intelligence and language.
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Prenatal
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The ______ period of development is the time from conception to birth.
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cultural heritage, race, and nationality
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Ethnicity is rooted in:
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78
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Life expectancy in the U.S. is _____ years of age.
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Cognition, Behavior, and Environment
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Which of the following are key factors of Bandura’s social cognitive theory??
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Ethnicity
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_____ encompasses cultural heritage, nationality, race, religion, and language.
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Infancy
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____ is the developmental period from birth to 18 or 24 months.
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Correctional Research
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Which of the following research designs is used to detect if a relationship exists between two or more variable, although it cannot infer causation?
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Information – processing thwory, Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory, Piaget’s developmental theory.
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Which of the following are cognitive theories of development?
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Ethological
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The ________ theory states that behavior is tied to evolution, is strongly affected by biological influence, and is characterized by critical or sensitive periods.
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Social
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Bandura’s ______ cognitive theory recognizes the contributions of behaviorism but also stresses that thinking is an important ingredient in understanding development.
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Naturalistic
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The observance of behavior in real-world settings, while making no effort to manipulate or control the situation, is known a _____ observation.
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Normative
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_____ age – graded influences include biological processes such as puberty and menopause.

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