PSY Unit 2

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CHAPTER 6
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—–
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When our mental activity undergoes a change in quality or pattern, this is called a _____.
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altered state of consciousness.
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The sleep wake cycle is a _____ rhythm, normally occurring every 24 hours.
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circadian.
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The suprachiasmatic nucleus instructs the _____ gland to release _____.
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pineal; melatonin.
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In which stage of sleep is a person hardest to wake?
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Stages 3 and 4.
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Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of REM sleep?
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slower, deeper breathing.
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Acting out your nightmares is a rare condition called _____.
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REM behavior disorder.
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Which of the following is bad advice for someone suffering from insomnia?
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Lie in bed until you fall asleep, even if it takes several hours.
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Nightmares occur in _____ sleep, whereas night terrors occur in _____ sleep.
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REM; NREM.
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Mental images _____.
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have a picture-like quality.
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Knowing that the definition of psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes is an example of a _____.
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formal concept.
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A rule of thumb is another name for a _____.
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heuristic.
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What type of problem-solving strategy would be best to use when solving a problem in algebra class?
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algorithm.
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Miguel was struggling with the answer to one of the questions on his psychology midterm. Seeing that the answer was not going to come easily, he went on to answer some of the other easier questions. Then, suddenly, the answer to the problematic question just seemed to pop into his head. Miguel’s experience is an example of _____.
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insight.
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Al goes out one frosty morning to find that his car is covered with a layer of thick frost. He needs to get to work and looks for his ice scraper. Unable to find it, he thinks a moment, goes into the house, and returns with a hard plastic spatula from the kitchen. In using the spatula as a makeshift ice scraper, Al has overcome _____.
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functional fixedness.
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Randall believes that aliens crashed in the western United States in the 1950s. When looking for information about this on the Internet, he ignores any sites that are skeptical of his belief and only visits and talks with his friends about the sites that support his belief. This is an example of _____.
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confirmation bias.
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When a problem is seen as having only one answer, with all lines of thinking leading to that answer, this is known as _____.
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creative thinking.
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Which of the following statements about creative people is TRUE?
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They are not afraid to be different.
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The system of rules for combining words and phrases to make meaningful sentences is called _____.
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syntax.
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Grammar includes all but which of the following aspects of language?
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tone.
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The sounds of the letters b, z, c,and dare examples of _____.
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phonemes.
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The Dani have only two words for color, yet can distinguish between many different colors. This finding supports the language theory of _____.
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Rosch.
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The quality of language produced by animals cannot yet compare to the level achieved by a _____.
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3-year-old human.
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Most of our time awake is spent in a state called _____, in which our thoughts, feelings, and sensations are clear and organized, and we feel alert.
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waking consciousness.
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Which of the following situations is NOT an altered state of consciousness?
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You are concentrating on a math test.
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Which of the following is NOT an example of a circadian rhythm?
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menstrual cycle.
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When light begins to fade at the end of the day, the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the _____ signals the pineal gland to release _____.
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hypothalamus; melatonin.
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What is the first stage of sleep in which, if awakened, you will realize that you were asleep?
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Stage Two.
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In which stage of sleep do night terrors occur?
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Stage Four.
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Sleepwalking _____.
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is partly hereditary.
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is partly hereditary _____.
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are more common in children.
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Which of the following statements about REM sleep is FALSE?
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Lack of REM sleep produces psychological disorders.
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If you are in REM sleep but are able to move around and act out your dreams, you may have a rare condition called _____.
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REM behavior disorder.
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If you suddenly and without warning slip into REM sleep during the day, often falling down as you do so, you may have the condition called _____.
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narcolepsy.
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A sleep disorder that may require the use of a machine to force air gently into the nasal passages is called _____.
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sleep apnea.
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Mental activity that goes on in the brain when a person is processing information is called _____.
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thinking.
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Concepts that are formed as a result of everyday experience, which are not always well defined, are known as _____.
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natural concepts.
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On a popular quiz show, contestants are asked to match the audience in naming certain items. One contestant, when asked to \”name a type of vehicle\”, replied \”elevator!\” The audience groaned, because they knew that the contestant was pretty far off the mark. The contestant should have picked a vehicle that was closer to a _____ for vehicles to match the audience’s response.
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prototype.
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Algorithms are a type of _____.
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mechanical solution.
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The _____ heuristic can be used to create and maintain stereotypes.
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representative.
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When people persist in trying to solve a problem the same way they have always gone about solving problems, they have developed _____.
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a mental set.
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Which of the following questions would be more likely to produce divergent thinking?
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How many uses can you think of for a coffee cup?
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The basic units of sound are called _____.
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phonemes.
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The linguistic relativity hypothesis states that _____.
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language shapes thoughts.
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Research has supported the role of _____ in the maintenance of mental fitness and improved cognitive function.
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b and c.
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According to Noam Chomsky, humans have an innate ability to understand and produce language through _____.
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the language acquisition device.
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As _____ accumulates in the body, a person will begin to feel sleepy.
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melatonin.
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David often experiences \”sleep seizures\” during the day. He probably suffers from _____.
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narcolepsy.
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In a well known animal language research study, Kanzi the chimp _____.
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demonstrated four consistent sounds to represent banana, grapes, juice, and the word yes.
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Making a list of all the ways one could use a butter knife requires _____.
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divergent thinking.
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When people think, they often have _____ in their minds.
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images and words.
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A biological cycle, or rhythm, that is approximately 24 hours long is called a _____.
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Circadian cycle.
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A seemingly arbitrary flash \”out of the blue,\” through which the solution to a problem suddenly becomes apparent to you, but you do not consciously know how you \”figured it out,\” is called _____.
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insight.
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Consciousness is the _____.
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awareness of ourselves and the environment.
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Language is based on basic sound units called _____.
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phonemes.
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CHAPTER 8
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—–
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The process by which activities are started, directed, and sustained to meet a person s wants is called _____.
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motivation.
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Liz picked out \”her\” desk on the first day of class. But in the second class period, someone else is sitting in \”her\” chosen seat. Liz’s territorial attitude about that desk and her negative feelings toward the \”interloper\” sitting there might best be explained by which of the following?
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instinct approach.
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People high in the need for _____ want to be liked by others and are good team players.
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affiliation.
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Ronnie believes that people are just born smart or not smart, and he thinks of himself as \”not smart.\” As a result, Ronnie doesn’t really try all that hard to succeed in school. Dweck would say that Ronnie s achievement motivation is being affected by his _____.
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external locus of control.
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In the _____ approach, people are said to have an optimal level of tension.
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arousal.
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Which of the following approaches to motivation has ties to the basic principles of learning and the concept of reinforcement?
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incentive.
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The most basic needs in Maslow’s hierarchy are _____.
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physiological needs.
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Jamal gets a new toy for every good grade on his report card in first grade. Jamal is receiving _____.
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extrinsic motivation.
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What are two signs of physical dependency?
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drug tolerance and withdrawal.
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Larger and larger doses of amphetamines can lead to a severe mental disturbance and paranoia called _____.
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amphetamine psychosis.
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The \”date rape\” drug, Rohypnol, is one of the _____.
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minor tranquilizers.
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Of the following, which comes from the peyote cactus?
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mescaline.
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In Kinsey’s original data, more _____ than _____ reported having bisexual experiences.
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men; women.
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Which group was NOT one of the groups poorly represented in the Kinsey study?
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white, middle class.
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Compared to the Kinsey data, the data from the Janus Report revealed the age of the first sexual experience for about 20% of the men and 8% of the women to be _____.
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14.
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The Savic et al. 2005 study found that homosexual men responded to a pheromone in the same way as _____.
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heterosexual women.
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Which of the following is NOT one of the possible causes of homosexuality, according to research?
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abuse.
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Which of the following is NOT one of the three elements of emotion?
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attention.
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Emotional stimuli travel to the _____ by both a fast subcortical route and a slower cortical route.
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amygdala.
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The theory of emotion that states that the thalamus sends sensory information to the cortex and the sympathetic organs at the same time is the _____.
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Schachter-Singer theory.
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In Schachter and Singer’s classic study, participants who were exposed to the \”angry\” man interpreted their physiological arousal as _____, whereas those who were exposed to the \”happy\” man interpreted their arousal as _____.
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angry; happy.
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Leslie smiles a lot in the classroom, which in turn prompts his students to smile, making them feel happier too. This effect is best explained by which of the following theories of emotion?
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facial feedback.
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In the _____ theory of emotion, the most important aspect of an emotional experience is the interpretation, or appraisal, of the stimulus.
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cognitive-mediational.
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The approach to motivation that forced psychologists to consider the hereditary factors in motivation was the _____.
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instinct approach.
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The need for money is an example of an _____.
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acquired drive.
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Jocelyn needs to be the one whose ideas are always used and craves prestige among others. She drives an expensive car and wears nothing but the most expensive clothes. Jocelyn is high in the need for _____.
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power.
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People who are always looking for a challenge may be high in the need for _____.
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achievement.
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Evidence from a study with 2-year-olds who were given an opportunity to explore a black box with a hole in it suggests that sensation seeking may be _____.
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innate.
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Gene is trying to choose a snack. There is a bowl of fruit on the table, but there s also a candy bar that he bought yesterday. The fact that Gene feels drawn to choose the candy bar instead of the fruit is an example of the power of _____.
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incentives.
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According to Maslow, a person who wants to become selfactualized must first satisfy _____.
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more basic needs such as food and safety.
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Shontia works at a day care center. The pay is low and the hours are long, but she loves being around children and has no desire to look for a higher-paying job. Shontia’s motivation appears to be _____.
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intrinsic.
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Jackie used Ecstasy while she was in college, but now that she has a government job she has avoided using any recreational drugs. Although she had no problem quitting, she still finds that every now and then she gets a strong craving to use Ecstasy again. Her craving is most likely the result of _____.
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psychological dependence.
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Which of the following is NOT a naturally occurring substance?
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amphetamine.
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Which of the following is NOT a depressant?
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PCP.
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\”Magic mushrooms\” are the source of _____.
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psilocybin.
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High doses of marijuana can lead to _____.
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hallucinations and delusions.
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The most recent surveys indicate that about _____ percent of men and _____ percent of women are predominantly homosexual.
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9; 5.
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Bisexual people _____.
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can be either male or female.
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Your heart is racing, your breathing is rapid, and your mouth is dry. What emotion are you experiencing?
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It is not always possible to distinguish one emotion from another by physiological reactions only.
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Dora is experiencing positive emotions while Milly is experiencing negative emotions. If researchers are examining EEG recordings of their brains, where are they most likely to see increases in activity?
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both a and b are correct.
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The _____ is a brain structure that allows us to quickly and unconsciously respond to potentially dangerous stimuli before we are completely conscious of the threat.
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amygdala.
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The _____ theory of emotion would predict that people with spinal cord injuries that prevent them from experiencing sympathetic arousal would show decreased emotion.
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James-Lange.
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In Schachter and Singer s classic study, participants were physically aroused by _____.
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receiving epinephrine.
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The theory of emotion that owes a lot to Darwin’s work is the _____.
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facial feedback theory.
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A person’s sexual attraction and affection for members of either the opposite or the same sex is called _____.
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sexual orientation.
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Opium and its derivatives, morphine and heroin, duplicate the action of which of the following?
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endorphins.
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Which area of the brain has been linked to the processing of positive emotions?
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the left frontal lobe.
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Which of the following kills the most people in the United States every year?
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illnesses related to smoking.
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Abraham Maslow theorized that human needs are _____.
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arranged in a hierarchy of importance.
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According to the _____ theory, arousal of organs and the experience of emotion are simultaneous.
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Cannon-Bard.
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A need that energizes and directs behavior towards some goal is known as a _____.
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Motive.
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An innate or inborn predisposition to act in a specific way is called an _____.
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Instinct.
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Emotional arousal and experience occur at the same time because of stimulation of the cerebral cortex, according to the _____.
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Cannon-Bard theory.
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Primary motives are _____.
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Unlearned.
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CHAPTER 9
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—–
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The optimal amount of stress that people need to promote their health and sense of well-being is called _____.
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eustress.
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Research has shown that _____ have a long-term effect on physical and mental health, but _____ have a greater impact on short-term health.
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major life events; hassles.
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The College Undergraduate Stress Scale rates being raped as equally stressful when compared with which of the following?
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finding out that one is HIV-positive.
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When people have to work harder, do more work, or work faster, they are experiencing _____.
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pressure.
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The stress-increasing effects of uncontrollability are related to the effects of _____ on stress.
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unpredictability.
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Eduardo is on his way to an important job interview when his car breaks down on the highway. Eduardo is likely to experience what kind of frustration?
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external.
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The first response that people typically make to frustration is _____.
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persistence.
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Jasmine has just been offered an opportunity to teach at a small college in a rural area of Kansas. On the one hand, she really needs a job and the money it would bring would allow her to pay off some debts. But the college is in a very small town far away from any major cities and has very little to offer in the way of amusements. She would also be far away from her family and friends. Jasmine is facing what type of conflict in deciding whether or not to accept the job?
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approach-avoidance.
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In the _____ stage of the GAS, the person may actually start to feel better.
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resistance.
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The activation of the immune system response by stress differs from the activation of that system by illness in that _____.
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stress activates areas in the brain first.
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According to Lazarus, secondary appraisal involves _____.
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estimating the resources a person has available for coping.
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Adam is very ambitious and driven to succeed. He is easily angered, always wants to be working, and finds it hard to relax. According to research, Adam is _____.
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at a high risk for coronary heart disease.
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Which of the following is NOT one of the three C’s of the hardy personality?
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callousness.
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Optimism has been associated with all of the following except _____.
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increased rates of learned helplessness.
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Which of the following is NOT a typical source of stress in the workplace?
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lack of shift work.
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Which of the following is NOT a symptom of burnout?
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optimism.
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Larysa moved from Ukraine to the United States. She learned to speak and write English, changed her last name so that it would sound more \”American\”, and no longer maintains any of her old culture’s styles of dress or customs. Larysa has used which method of entering the majority culture?
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assimilation.
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Social support _____.
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shows all of the above.
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Which of the following is not one of the physiological factors in hunger?
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corpus callosum.
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Which of the following is not a sexual dysfunction stemming from an organic physical disorder?
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frotteurism.
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In _____, the person may have the desire for sexual activity but be unable to physically participate.
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sexual arousal disorder.
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When a person tries to cope by eliminating or changing the stressor directly, it is known as ______.
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problem-focused coping.
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Kareem is relaxing in a chair with his eyes closed. As he sits quietly, he is focusing on the sound of his own breathing and is clearing his mind of other thoughts. Kareem is practicing _____.
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concentrative meditation.
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Which of the following is NOT one of the ways that religion helps people reduce or cope with stress?
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Religion isolates people from those who are different.
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Which of the following is a cognitive symptom of stress?
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memory problems.
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How do today’s researchers differ from Selye in their view of eustress?
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They believe that a certain level of eustress is necessary to promote health.
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Unpredictable, large-scale events that create a great deal of stress and feelings of threat are called _____.
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catastrophes.
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Lisa’s score on the SRRS was 380. According to Holmes and Rahe, Lisa is probably suffering from a _____.
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major life crisis.
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Researchers found that the _____ of daily hassles was a far better predictor of headaches than were scores on a life events scale.
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perceived severity.
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For which of the following groups of people would going shopping or experiencing bad weather be more stressful than for the other groups, according to Ellis et al. (2001)?
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elderly people.
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Which of the following is NOT a source of stress as discussed in the text?
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predictability.
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Who reformulated the frustration-aggression hypothesis?
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Berkowitz.
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Phrases such as \”caught between a rock and a hard place\” and \”out of the frying pan, into the fire\” refer to _____.
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avoidance-avoidance conflicts.
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When a person has to make a choice among several goals and each goal has both its good points and its bad points, the person is experiencing a _____.
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multiple approach-avoidance conflict.
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In which of Selye’s stages is death a possible outcome?
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exhaustion.
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Appraising a stressor as a challenge results in _____ than if the stressor is appraised as a threat.
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less stress.
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Joe rarely takes any work home, preferring to leave his work worries at the office. He is not ambitious and likes to have a lot of leisure time when it is possible. He is also easygoing and doesn t lose his temper often, preferring to avoid conflict. Which of the following statements about Joe is most likely true?
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Joe is a Type B personality.
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Tad seems to thrive on stress and feels very much in control of his life. He would probably be labeled a _____.
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hardy personality.
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Which of the following is NOT one of the three methods suggested by Vaughan to promote a positive, optimistic mood?
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using a scapegoat.
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Acculturative stress is lowest for people who choose _____ as their method of entering the majority culture.
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integration.
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When we eat, the pancreas releases _____, which lowers blood sugar and can increase the feeling of hunger.
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insulin.
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According to Rodin, some people may produce insulin in response to anticipating food as a result of _____.
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Classical conditioning.
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If there is a history of obesity in a family, each family member has _____ of becoming obese compared to people without such a family history.
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double or triple the risk.
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Which of the following is not one of the three areas affected by sexual dysfunctions?
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sexual reproduction.
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_____ is more a problem of timing than anything else.
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Premature ejaculation.
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Shawna is having trouble in algebra. She goes to the school’s academic help center for tutoring and spends extra time working algebra problems at home. Shawna s method of coping is __________.
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problem focused.
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Who among the following probably has the least ability to cope effectively with stress?
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Jackie, who has few friends and whose family lives far away from her.
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In which of Selye’s stages is death a possible outcome?
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exhaustion.
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Which of the following is a cognitive symptom of stress?
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memory problems.
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According to Seligman, the response of \”giving up\” and not attempting to control the environment is called _____.
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learned helplessness.
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Overall, research has indicated that _____ influences the amount of stress that people experience.
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degree of control people have over their lives.
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Type A behavior is characterized by _____.
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anger and impatience.
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Unpredictability is stressful because _____.
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we cannot plan for random events.
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Which of the following is the better predictor of psychological and physical health, according to Lazarus?
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hassles.
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Which of the following statements about stress is TRUE?
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Positive situations can lead to stress.

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