psy exam

A prototype for the category “weather” would be
all of these: a.cloudy.
b. rainy.
d. sunny.
Which of the following would NOT be categorized as belonging to the same “concept?”
speech.
Mental categories used to class together objects, relations, events, abstractions or qualities that have common properties are called
concepts.
This is the kind of reasoning science mostly depends on
Inductive
This type of reasoning follows formal rules allowing us to draw conclusions which necessarily follow the premisses on which they are based.
Deductive
Estimating the probabilty of an event based on how easy it is to remember is called the ____.
Availability heuristic
Thinking about objects only in terms of their functions.
Functional fixedness
Which of the following are factors related to eating disorders?
all of these: a. history of sexual abuse
c. parental expectations
d. sociocultural climate
Which of the following is true regarding anorexia nervosa?
Severe weight loss triggers abnormalities in the reproductive system.
Which of the following persons is most likely to have anorexia nervosa?
a European American adolescent female.
Which theory supports the following scenario: You see a tiger and because you are afraid you run away?
Cognitive-Appraisal
____ are feeling states with cognitive, physiological, and behavioral components.
Emotions
____ theories suggest that needs create a state of tension and that behavior relieves that tension and returns the organism to a calm, resting state.
Drive-reduction
____ was responsible for devising the Hierarchy of Needs.
Abraham Maslow
The study of motivation is an attempt to understand ____ a behavior occurs.
why
The theory of cognitive appraisal proposes that the way we label an emotion depends largely on
our perception of the situation
Tom and Rob are twins. Tom is gay. According to heritability studies, Rob is more likely to be gay if they are ____ twins.
identical
The sexual response cycle occurs in what sequence?
excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution
The eating disorder characterized by binge eating and purging is
bulimia nervosa
he direction of ones sexual and romantic interests refers to
sexual orientation
The concept of ____ describes the bodys tendency to maintain a steady state or to act to restore balance in response to deprivation.
homeostasis
Richard is a male who is attracted to both men and women. He is
bisexual
Schachters model of emotion puts the greatest emphasis on
cognitive interpretation of the situation
One criticism of the Kinsey reports is that
the sample was not representative of the population
Needs give rise to
drives
Darwin (1872) argued that ____ revealed universal signs of emotion.
facial expressions
Deprivation of food gives rise to the ____.
hunger drive
Emotions are feeling states with all of the following components EXCEPT
environmental.
According to Maslow, needs are organized in a ____ with physiological needs and self-actualization needs at the extremes.
hierarchy
According to the Cannon-Bard Theory, an event simultaneously triggers
physiological arousal and experience of an emotion
According to the cognitive theory, people strive to understand the world so they can
predict and control events.
According to the James-Lange theory of emotion, specific patterns of arousal and action are triggered by specific stimuli. The emotions we experience are, therefore,
based on automatic physiological and behavioral responses
A fertilized egg cell is called a(n)
zygote
According to Ainsworth, babies who demonstrate proximity to their mother and separation anxiety when apart are showing indications of
attachment.
According to Erikson, the infant-parent relationship can affect issues associated with ____ during the first year of life.
trust
According to Erikson, the major challenge of adolescence is the creation of
ego identity
According to Konrad Lorenz, attachment is
an instinct.
Adolescence begins with ____.
puberty
Adolescent cognitive development, according to Piaget, is indicated by the ability to
think abstractly.
Adolescent egocentrism gives rise to the
imaginary audience and the personal fable.
Ainsworth innovated the ____ method to study attachment
strange situation
Attachment is defined as
an enduring emotional tie.
Authoritative parents are both strict and
respectful toward their children.
Children at the ____ level of moral reasoning base their judgments on the consequences of behavior
preconventional
Goslings formed an attachment to Lorenz because he
was the first moving object they perceived and followed.
Harry Harlow (1959) demonstrated that attachment in rhesus monkeys was related to
contact comfort.
If a male experiences the appearance of body hair and a deeper voice he is likely showing signs of
puberty
Embryos develop into males when
testes form and begin to produce androgens
Erikson referred to ____ as a firm sense of who one is and what one stands for
ego identity
A childs father demands that the child not speak to an adult unless spoken to, that he/she always put away one toy before taking out another, and that soft drinks be taken only on special occasions. This childs father can be described as
authoritarian.
A four-month-old infant is playing with keys. You place a magazine on top of the keys. The infant does not search for them. This demonstrates a lack of
object permanence.
The ecological theory of development was developed by:
Urie Bronfenbrenner
James Marcia researched Erikson’s concept of identity crisis. Marcia discovered four different ways adolescents responded to this developmental period. Which one of the following WAS NOT one of Maricia’s identified patterns?
Egocentrism
The case of Genie highlighted the importance of the questions surrounding:
All of these: a.The consequences of early deprivation of love and nurture
b. The role of nature and nurture in development
d. The existence of critical periods