Psy ch 13 Essay

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social psychology
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The scientific study of how a person’s thoughts, feelings, and behavior are influenced by real, imagined, or implied presence of others
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attribution theory
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we explain others’ or our own behavior by crediting the situation or the person’s disposition
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dispositional attributions
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a persons stable, enduring traits
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situational attribution
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the situation people are in
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fundamental attribution error
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sometimes called correspondence bias; when trying to understand the cause of someone’s current behavior, we tend to overestimate their personal traits and underestimate the situation; not seeing what is really going on
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attitude
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tendencies to respond positively or negatively toward ideas, persons, objects, or situations; components- feelings, thoughts, actions
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persuasion
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changing or trying to change beliefs or actions of others; key elements- source of the message, message itself, target audience
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peripheral route persuasion
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occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speakers attractiveness; make snap judgements
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central route persuasion
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occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts
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cognitive dissonance
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discomfort when behaviors don’t match our attitudes; 3 ways to reduce- change behavior, temporarily change attitude, form a new attitude to justify behavior
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conformity
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changing one’s own behavior to match that of other people; people do this because they don’t trust their own judgement and were made to feel uncomfortable
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Solomon Asch’s study
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subject sat in groups and matched lines; 1 subject was real; 3rd time around all the confederates said wrong answer, subject followed; 37% conformity rate, 5% if they had a partner; conformity reduced by 2/3 when written
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confederate
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in social research, an actor who is placed in an experiment to fulfill a role
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peg study on cognitive dissonance
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subjects were given boring task; after interview 1/2 the subjects were kept to act as an experimenter; 1/2 were offered $1 and the others were offered $20; those who were offered $1 rated the activity more positive to rationalize their own judgments and convinced themselves they were having fun; the $20 group rated the experiment as negative because they had the $20 to make them feel better
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obedience
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changing one’s behavior at the direct order of an authority figure
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Stanley Milgrim study
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Shocking experiment; used a fake shocking generator; “teacher” thought it was an experiment about learning; confederate was the person being shocked; over 50% went all the way to 450 volts- about 63%
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factors that affect obedience
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intimidation by authority figure causes a relief of responsibility; physical distance between authority figure and participant; very little time to think for yourself; incremental obedience: once you begin to obey, you start to build momentum and it’s harder to stop; psychological distance between our actions and their results
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foot-in-door phenomenon
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agree to smaller request to comply later with a larger request
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door-in-face phenomenon
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person starts with large request so consumer agrees to something smaller
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lowball
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will set something at a bargain price just to add additional expenses that make purchases less o a bargain; car salesman
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that’s not all
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rather than give someone whole item, it gets offered in pieces. People think they’re getting more for their money
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social facilitation
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performance on a talk is improved by others’ presence
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social impairment
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performance on an easy task is impaired because of the presence of others
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social loafing
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people tend to work less in a group then when they are in a group
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bystander effect
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as the number of bystanders increases, the probability that anyone will help decreases
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5 steps in making the decision to help
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1- notice, 2- define emergency, 3- take responsibility, 4- plan a course of action, 5- take action
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prosocial
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behavior that you do to earn a reward; donate for recognition
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altruism
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unselfish regard for the welfare of others; expect or want nothing in return
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Philip Zimbardo study
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study on attitudes; Stanford prison experiment; students responded to a newspaper ad where they would be part of an experiment and make $15 a day; started changing into their roles after 1st day; experiment ended on 6th day
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group polarization
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the beliefs and attitudes we bring to a group grow stranger as we discuss them with like-minded others; the enhancement of a groups prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group
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groupthink
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occurs when a group makes faulty decisions because of the groups presence; ignore alternatives and tend to make irrational decisions; causes individual members of the group to unquestioningly follow the word of the leader and it strongly discourages any disagreement with the majority
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prejudice
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an unjustifiable and negative attitude toward a group and its members’ generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and predisposition to discriminatory actions
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stereotypes
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a generalized and sometimes accurate belief about a group of people
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discrimination
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unjustifiable negative behaviors toward a group and its members
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just-world phenomenon
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the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people get what they deserve and deserve what they get
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ingroup
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“us” people with whom we share a common identity
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outgroup
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“them” those perceived as different or apart from our group
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ingroup bias
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the tendency to favor our own group
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aggression
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any verbal or physical behavior intended to hurt someone
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frustration-aggression principle
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the principle that frustration- the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal- creates anger, which can generate aggression
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social-exchange theory
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the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs; if reward exceed the costs, you will help
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reciprocity norm
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an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them
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social-responsibility norm
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an expectation that people will help those who are dependents upon them; such as young children or those who can’t give as much as they receive
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moral weakness or an addictive personality
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If we encounter a person who appears to be high on drugs, and we make the fundamental attribution error, we will probably attribute the person’s behavior to
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peripheral
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Celebrity endorsements in advertising often lead consumers to purchase products through _______ route persuasion
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foot-in-the-door
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We tend to agree to a larger request more readily if we have already agreed to a small request. This tendency is called the _________ phenomenon
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cognitive dissonance theory
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Jamal’s therapist has suggested that Jamal should “act as if” he is confident, even though he feels insecure and shy. Which social psychology theory would best support this suggestion?
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the person admires the group’s status
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Researchers have found that a person is most likely to conform to a group if
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deindividuation
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In a group situation that fosters arousal and anonymity, the person sometimes loses self-consciousness and self-constraint. This phenomenon is called
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group polarization
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Sharing our opinions with like-minded others tends to strengthen our views, a phenomenon referred to as
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mirror-image perceptions
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Our enemies often have many of the same negative impressions of us as we have of them. This exemplifies the concept of
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superordinate goals
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One way of resolving conflicts and fostering cooperation id by giving rival groups shared goals that help them override their differences. These are called
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attitude; behavior
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Prejudice is a(n) ______; discrimination is a(n) ______
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they perceive their orders to come from legitimate authority figures
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In 1942, German reserve police officers obeyed orders to kill some 1500 Jews in the village of Jozefow, Poland. This incidents illustrated that people are most likely to be destructively obedient when:
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calculations of costs and benefits
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According to social exchange theory, altruistic behavior is guided by:
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situational influences; personal dispositions
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The fundamental attribution error refers to our tendency to underestimate ______ and to overestimate the impact of ______ in explaining the behavior of others.
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more; less
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On average, Internet-formed friendships and romantic relationships are _____ likely that relationships formed in person to last beyond two years. When conversing online with someone for 20 minutes, participants in one study felt ______ liking for that person than they did for someone they talked with face to face.
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Stanley Milgram
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In his study on obedience, the most fundamental lesson learned was that even ordinary people, who are not usually hostile, con become agents of destruction
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enduring companionate love
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Equity, self-disclosure, and positive support are keys to
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attribution theory
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how people explain others’ behavior
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the bystander effect
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Observers’ responses to the tragic murder of Kitty Genovese outside her New York apartment best illustrated:
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the fundamental attribution error
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Marilyn judges her professor’s strict class attendance policy to be an indication of his over-controlling personality rather than a necessity dictated by the limited number of class sessions in a course that meets only once a week. Her judgment best illustrates
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foot-in-the-door phenomenon
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Bart complied with his friends’ request to join them in smashing pumpkins early one Halloween evening. Later that night he was surprised by his own failure to resist their pressures to throw eggs at passing police cars. Bart’s experience best illustrates the
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role playing on attitude change
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Cognitive dissonance theory is most helpful for understanding the impact of
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normative social influence
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In making wedding preparations, Jason conforms to the expectations of his future bride’s family simply to win their favor. His behavior illustrates the importance of
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learning
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Participants in Milgram’s obedience study were informed that they were involved in a study of
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social facilitation
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Bonnie pedals an exercise bile at her health club much faster when other patrons happen to be working out on nearby equipment. This best illustrates
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group polarization
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When a group of racially prejudiced high school students discussed racial issues, their attitudes became even more prejudiced. This best illustrates
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ingroup bias
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Kelly, a Republican, and Carlos, a Democrat, both believe that members of their own political party are more fair-minded and trustworthy than members of the other parties. Their beliefs best illustrate
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the just-world phenomenon
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When visiting the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp shortly after WWII, one German civilian was said to have remarked, “What terrible criminals these prisoners must have been to receive such treatment.” This reaction is best explained in terms of
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emotional desensitization
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The psychological process underlying the impact of playing violent video games on subsequent displays of aggression are most likely to include
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the mere exposure effect
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When buying groceries, many shoppers prefer certain products simply because they have familiar brand names. This preference best illustrates the importance of
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the two-factor theory
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Which theory best explains why the excitement that lingers after a frightening event can facilitate passionate love?
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the bystander effect
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Mr. Hughes heard what sounded like cries for help from a swimmer located 30 yards from the ocean shoreline. He continued walking alongside the beach, however, because he figured that one of the many swimmers in the vicinity would provide help if it was needed. His reaction best illustrates the dynamics of
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a social trap
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Max fails to recycle his glass, metal, and plastic garbage because he thinks it’s personally inconvenient and likely to have minimal impact on the city’s already overflowing landfills. His reaction best illustrates the dynamics of
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superordinate goals
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The hostilities between two racial subgroups of a riverfront community were dramatically reduced when the threat of their river flooding its banks required that they work together to save their town. This best illustrates the impact of
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the fundamental attribution error
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This involves underestimating situational constraints on another’s behavior
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cognitive dissonance theory
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Professor Stewart wrote a very positive letter of recommendation for a student despite having doubts about her competence. Which theory best explains why he subsequently began to develop more favorable attitudes about the student’s abilities?
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the chameleon effect
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Research participants who worked alongside someone who rubbed his or her face or shook his or her foot were observed to do the same thing themselves. This best illustrated
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social loafing
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Blindfolded students were asked to pull on a rope as hard as they could. The students pulled hardest when they thought no others were pulling with them. This is a study of
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deindividuation
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Although Frieda is typically very reserved, as part of a huge rock concert crowd she lost her inhibitions and behaved in a very sexually provocative way. Frieda’s unusual behavior is best understood in terms of
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harmony
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Groupthink is fueled by a desire for
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the scapegoat theory
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Evidence that people exhibit heightened levels of prejudice when they are economically frustrated offers support for
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the frustration-aggression principle
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Shortly after Alex learned that he had failed to make the high school football team, he vandalized the team’s locker room and broke several classroom windows. His behavior is best explained in terms of
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equity
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Although Natalie receives somewhat greater rewards from her marriage than does her husband, both are satisfies with the relationship because they each benefit in proportion to what they put into it. This best illustrates the significance of
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altruism
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When Hutu militia began to slaughter the Tutsi in 1994, missionary Carl Wilkens risked his own life to save the lives of others. His actions best illustrated
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the reciprocity norm
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After Mrs. Chanski and her children had helped themselves to free samples of the cookies being promoted in the grocery store, she felt obligated to buy some, even though they seemed unreasonably expensive. Her reaction best illustrates the significance of
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mirror-image perceptions
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Although the leaders of two enemy nations admit to a buildup of their own military forces, each sees the other country’s actions as unreasonable and motivated by evil intentions. This situation best illustrates
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GRIT
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Initiating one or more small conciliatory acts is a central feature of

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