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PSY-425 Study Guide: Chapter 13 Speech Perception (Cohen)

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Computer speech recognition is…
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Worse than human speech recognition.
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The Soft Plate
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Considered an Articulator
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Frequency; Time
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A sound spectrogram is a plot of ______________ as a function of _____________, with darker areas representing greater intensity.
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F
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The consonant sound “____” is produced by placing your bottom lip against your upper front teeth and then pushing the air between the lips and the teeth.
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The vowel sound /ae/ (as in “had”) has
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Formants at 500 Hz, 1700 Hz, and 2500 Hz.
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Phonemes
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The shortest segment of speech that if changed, changes the meaning of the word.
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Thirteeen
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There are _____ phonemes that have vowel sounds in the English language.
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Spectrograms of sentences show
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No clear pauses or breaks between words.
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The segmentation Problem
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Listening to someone speak a foreign language is used as an example of
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Perceptual Constancy
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Humans perceive the sound of the /b/ sound to be the same, when the coarticulation of the sound can be different.
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Coarticulation
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When you say “bat” and “boot,” the /b/ sound is articulated differently. This is an example of…
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The problem of variability from the way different people speak can be demonstrated by
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a. the pitch differences in different people’s voices. b. the different accents of different speakers. c. the speed at which the speaker talks. d. all of these. ** (pages 315-316; factual)
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The ubiquitous “Whazzup!” is a sloppy pronunciation of “What’s up?” The spectrograms of each of these two spoken phrases would indicate
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Major differences between the two phrases, especially in the middle of the spectrograms.
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The existence of phonetic boundaries
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Has been demonstrated using discrimination experiments.
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The /ta/ sound
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The voice onset time (VOT) for the sound /da/ is 17 ms, and the VOT for the sound /ta/ is 91 msec. When a computer produces a sound with a VOT of 55 msec, listeners report hearing…
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Vision
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The McGurk effect illustrates the importance of ___________ on speech perception.
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The McGurk effect is most similar to which of the following performers?
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Ventriloquists
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/da-da/
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Jessica looks at Ashlee on a videotape. Ashleigh’s lips are making the movement for the sound /ga-ga/, but the sound that is actually presented is the acoustic signal for /ba-ba/. What sound is Jessica most likely to report hearing?
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If a listener is asked to pay attention to speech provided by familiar voices, the _____ is activated, as shown by fMRI studies.
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Both the FFA and STS
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580 msec; 631 msec
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Rubin et al. (1976) asked participants to respond when they heard a word that started with the /b/ sound. The average response time when real words were used was ____; and ______ when non-words were used.
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Warren showed that when a cough sound replaced the sound of the first /s/ in the word “legislatures,” listeners reported hearing
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Both the cough and the /s/ sound, but the position of the cough could not be correctly identified.**
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Your ability to read the sentence “H*V* A N*C* D*Y” is used as an example of the importance of
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Top-down processing
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Miller and Isard presented listeners with grammatical sentences (“Gadgets simplify work around the house”); ungrammatical word strings (“Between gadgets highways passengers the steal”), and anomalous sentences (“Gadgets kill passengers from the eyes”). The results showed that the listener’s ability to accurately report the phrase was…
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Highest for the grammatical condition, followed by anomalous, and then ungrammatical.
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A fan of science fiction television shows would be more likely to make sense of the phrase “Start Wreck In Tore Prize.” This demonstrates the importance of…
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Meaning on segmentation.
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Top-down processing can help…
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Segment acoustic signals, recognize phonemes, and recognize words.
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Saffron et al. (1996) found that the ability to use transitional probabilities to segment sounds develops around
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8 months old
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Saffron et al. (1996) found that 8-month-old infants listened to ______ test stimuli longer, providing evidence that infants are capable of __________ learning.
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Part word; statistical
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More accurate when one speaker said all of the words.
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Palmeri et al. had participants listen to a word list that was spoken by (1) the same speaker, or (2) different speakers. In a subsequent recognition memory test, participants were…
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The joke in the textbook with the punch line “Yeah, right” is used as an example of
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Sarcasm as a type of indexical characteristic.
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Indexical characteristics
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Link et al. (2003) studied the perceived meaning of listeners’ to the phrase “Let’s do lunch sometime,” based on the speaker’s inflection and emotional state. These are examples of
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Speaking
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Damage to Broca’s area in the frontal lobe results in difficulty…
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A person with Wernicke’s aphasia
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Produces fluent speech, but in nonsensical “word salads.”
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Micelli et al. (1980) found that brain damage to the parietal lobe caused the patient to have difficulty discriminating between syllables. Micelli et al found that
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Some of these patients could still understand words.
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Brain scanning research has shown that the ________ is responsible for identifying sounds, and the _____ is responsible for locating sounds.
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what” (ventral) stream; “where” (dorsal) stream
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Japanese children at the age of _______ can tell the difference between the /r/ sound and the /l/ sound just as well as American children.
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6 months old
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The research by Rivera-Gaxiola on the effect of Spanish speech sounds on the electrical potentials of American infants shows that speech perception involves
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Experience-dependent plasticity.
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The discovery of ______ is used as support for the motor theory of speech perception.
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Audiovisual mirror neurons
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Watkins, using transcranial magnetic stimulation, found that motor-evoked potentials were highest when the participant
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Both heard speech sounds and watched someone else’s lips make speech sound.