PSY 301 Midterm

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Describe Behavior Predict Behavior Explain Behavior Control Behavior
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There are four interrelated goals of psychology research:
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Identify regularly occurring sequences of events or rare/complex events Includes both environmental events (stimuli) and behavioral events (responses) Asks \”what happens, and in what circumstance(s)?\”
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Describing Behavior
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Some research in psychology aims to develop laws that enable scientists to predict behavior with some probability greater than chance To say that behavior follows laws is to say that regular and predictable relationships exist between variables
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Predicting Behavior
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To give the reason for To explain some behavior is to know with some degree of confidence what caused it to happen Ask \”what caused it?\” X causes Y
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Explaining Behavior
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an experiment
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A scientist who manipulates at least one circumstance and measures at least one behavior has done
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A.an experiment
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Which method allows you to say that one variable caused a change in another variable?
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d. chewing gum is related to tooth decay
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You have just finished a correlational observation and found that people who chew gum tend to have more cavities. You can conclude that A.chewing gum causes cavities. B.the sugar in gum is harmful to tooth enamel. C.cavities cause people to chew gum. D.chewing gum is related to tooth decay.
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d. case study
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A neuropsychologist who extensively studies the behavior of a single patient having brain damage from an accident would be doing what type of research? A.an experiment. B.a correlational observation C.archival research D.a case study
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d. directionality
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Suppose you have done research and found that on average for children in middle schools the more times that they are sent to the principal’s office for behavioral problems, the lower their grades. However, you are not sure whether the behavior problems are causing the bad grades or the bad grades are causing the behavioral problems. According to the text this dilemma is called the ____ problem. A.third variable B.vice versa C.Heisenberg D.directionality
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b. dependent variable
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When you measure a person’s behavior in an experiment you are measuring a(n) A.independent variable. Correct B.dependent variable. C.random variable. D.confounding variable.
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D.there is a confounding variable.
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I am interested in whether students from University A or from University B are bigger sports fans. I make up a questionnaire asking questions such as \”What percentage of football games do you watch?\” and give it to a group of 100 women from University A and 100 men from University B. Suppose I find that the first group scores statistically lower on the test than the second group. If I conclude that University B students are bigger sports fans than University A students, I might be wrong because A.more of the University B students may have been juniors and seniors. B.the dependent variable was not well defined. C.there was no difference in the levels of the independent variable. D.there is a confounding variable.
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false
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If you search an existing data set in the library, you are doing survey research. True False
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false
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One problem with the case history approach is that it requires sophisticated statistical analysis. t or f
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B.dependent variable.
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When you measure a person’s behavior in an experiment you are measuring a(n) A.independent variable. B.dependent variable. C.random variable. D.confounding variable.
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D.external validity.
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If you are concerned with being able to generalize a result from one of your experiments to a larger population, then you are worried about A.statistical conclusion validity. B.construct validity. C.internal validity. D.external validity.
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B.random variable.
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Suppose I choose my participants for each condition of my experiment by placing a bunch of names in a hat and drawing out the names. I have made participant assignment into a A.control variable. B.random variable. C.confounding variable. D.dependent variable.
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B.statistical regression
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Suppose I choose my participants for each condition of my experiment by placing a bunch of names in a haA therapist believes that teaching anxious clients group interaction skills can lessen their anxiety. She gives an anxiety test, chooses the most anxious 10 percent of people, and then teaches them group interaction skills. On giving them a second anxiety test she discovers that their anxiety is significantly lower. If she concludes that the teaching has caused lessened anxiety she is ignoring ____ as a potential threat to internal validity. A.selection B.statistical regression C.mortality D.history
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B.independent variable.
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The variable the experimenter manipulates in an experiment in order to compare behavior at various levels is called the A.dependent variable. B.independent variable. C.control variable. D.confounding variable.
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C.hypothesis.
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A statement about the expected nature of the relationship between the independent and dependent variable is called the A.qualified guess. B.hypothetical construct. C.hypothesis. D.functional relationship.
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D.the independent variable.
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I want to know whether drivers who drive with their headlights on in the daytime are less likely to have accidents. I require 100 drivers from a large company to drive with their lights on during the day and require another group of 100 drivers from the same company to keep their lights off. I then keep accident statistics for several years to see if there are any differences. Having the lights on or off in the daytime is A.the dependent variable. B.a confounding variable. C.a random variable. D.the independent variable.
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C.random
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Suppose I am interested in the difference between first-year university students and seniors with respect to their attitudes toward student government. I take a list of all of the first-year students, drop the names in a hat, and draw out 100 names. I mail them a questionnaire about student government that I have made up. I repeat this process for the seniors. In this experiment the sex of the students is a ____ variable. A.control B.dependent C.random D.confounding
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False
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The variable the experimenter chooses to manipulate is called the dependent variable. True False
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False
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A hypothesis is a statement about the expected effect of the dependent variable on the independent variable. True False
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A.the lack of quality control for information posted.
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The most serious problem with using the internet to search for literature on a particular topic is A.the lack of quality control for information posted. B.the incompatibility of different computers. C.getting hard copies made of what you find. D.the cost of subscribing to services.
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C.observe the world around you.
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The best way to get an idea for an experiment is to A.sit at a desk and think of all the possible independent variables. B.ask a friend what would be an interesting experiment. C.observe the world around you. D.see a psychiatrist.
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D.all choices are correct.
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A good way to get an idea for an experiment is to observe A.yourself. B.your friends. C.children. D.all choices are correct.
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A.computerized database of abstracts.
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PsycINFO is a A.computerized database of abstracts. B.software program for conducting experiments. C.statistical package for analyzing psychological data. D.journal that does extensive literature reviews.
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D.all the choices are correct.
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A good theory should A.account for most of the data. B.be testable. C.predict the outcome of future experiments. D.all the choices are correct.
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C.simple theory.
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A theory with parsimony is a A.predictive theory. B.restrictive theory. C.simple theory. D.complex theory.
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C.a journal article.
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The primary source where original research is usually first reported is A.PsycINFO. B.Psychological Bulletin. C.a journal article. D.textbooks.
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C.papers at professional meetings.
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The most up-to-date sources for finding out what research is being done are A.journal articles. B.texts. C.papers at professional meetings. D.Annual Review.
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False
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It is possible for one experimental outcome to prove a theory. True False
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True
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The real backbone for a literature review is original research, which is typically reported in psychology journals. True False
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D.at no time.
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It is ethical to fabricate experimental results A.only if all other alternatives have been considered. B.whenever the experimental design calls for it. C.if fewer than 20% of the data are missing. D.at no time.
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A.falsifying credentials
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Which of the activities listed below did the author classify as dirty tricks (highly unethical)? A.falsifying credentials B.reformulating theory C.omitting experiments from a report D.all of the choices are dirty tricks
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B.responses fail to meet criteria established prior to the experiment.
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Data can be eliminated from an experiment if A.responses to certain levels of the independent fail to support your hypothesis. B.responses fail to meet criteria established prior to the experiment. C.participants seem uncooperative. D.data should never be eliminated.
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A.leave the first experiment out of a report if it adds nothing to the conclusion.
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Suppose in one experiment in a series you found no difference in your participants’ responses to the levels of your independent variable. You suspect that the levels you chose were too close together. So you redo the experiment with appropriate levels. It would be ethical to A.leave the first experiment out of a report if it adds nothing to the conclusion. B.report all results regardless of the outcome. C.change all results that do not fit the theory. D.report only the best experiment if no more than five experiments were done.
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B.try to correct these errors by means of a published correction or retraction.
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According to the APA if researchers discover significant errors in their published data they should A.ignore these as it is too late at that point to do anything about it. B.try to correct these errors by means of a published correction or retraction. C.wait until their next piece of research is published and correct the errors at that time. D.just let other researchers discover their errors because science is self-correcting.
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C.When you use another’s words or ideas you have to provide a citation at that point in your report.
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Which statement is true about plagiarism? A.It is okay to use another author’s exact words as long as you include the publication you are quoting from in the reference section of your report. B.While you should not use somebody else’s words in your report without citing the authors, it is okay to use their ideas without citing as long as you paraphrase. C.When you use another’s words or ideas you have to provide a citation at that point in your report. D.Because the Internet is public information, it is okay to use material you find there without having to cite it.
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A.in a document published by the the APA called the Ethical Principals of Psychologists and Code of Conduct.
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The best place to find a basic set of rules that should govern an experimental psychologist’s behavior is A.in a document published by the the APA called the Ethical Principals of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. B.in a document published by the National Institutes of Health called Basics of Proper Experimentation. C.to ask your local clergy. D.look in any recent statistics textbook.
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False
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It is okay to fabricate results if data points are missing and fewer than 10 percent need to be filled in. True False
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False
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It is a legitimate procedure to analyze your data as many ways as possible and then report only those that support your hypothesis. True False
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D.college students
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The majority of psychological research done today uses what kind of participants? A.laboratory rats B.military personnel C.paid adults D.college students
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D.you, the researcher.
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The primary responsibility for doing ethical research rests with A.institutional review boards. B.your professor. C.the editors who review research articles. D.you, the researcher.
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D. all choices are correct
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In order to minimize transmitting experimenter biases to participants, the experimenter could A.use recorded instructions. B.use multiple experimenters. C.make the experiment a double-blind experiment. D.all choices are correct.
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D.placebo
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If participants in a control group are administered a non-active substance in the same way that the active drug is given to the experimental group, they are said to have been given a(n) A.binder. B.null tablet. C.antidote. D.placebo.
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B.deception should be used only when it can be justified by the likely scientific, educational, or applied value of the study
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The current majority viewpoint concerning the use of deception in psychological experiments is A.deception is often necessary and does not hurt the participant so use it whenever necessary. B.deception should be used only when it can be justified by the likely scientific, educational, or applied value of the study. C.deception is unethical and should not be used. D.deception is not really an issue of concern.
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A.75%
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About what percentage of the public believe that \”the use of animals in medical research is necessary for progress in medicine\”? A.75% B.50% C.25% D.10%
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B.participants.
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The American Psychological Association recommends that when data are being collected from humans these people should be referred to as A.subjects. B.participants. C.experimentees. D.confederates.
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C.having an institutional review board review research proposals.
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Research-oriented institutions typically decide what is ethical with respect to the treatment of humans in behavioral research by A.trusting the individual researchers to decide what is ethical. B.having the head of the appropriate academic department decide what is best. C.having an institutional review board review research proposals. D.using an arbitrator assigned by the federal government.
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False
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The generic term recommended by the American Psychological Association for referring to those on whom we do research is subjects. True False
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False
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Blind experiments are ones that study perceptual cues used by individuals when their vision is blocked. True False
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B.double-check reliability
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There are several ways to establish the reliability of a test. Which method below is NOT one of those ways? A.alternative-form reliability B.double-check reliability C.alternative-form reliability D.split-half reliability
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A.a statement about the probable relationships among a set of abstract variables
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A theory is: A.a statement about the probable relationships among a set of abstract variables B.a complex mathematical equation relating quantitatively measured variables C. the factual outcome of experimentation D.a statement of the predicted relationship between two or more operationally defined variables
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D.a composite dependent variable.
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When several dependent variables are measured and then combined so that a single number can be used to represent these variables, that number is A.an indirect dependent variable. B.a single dependent variable. C.a contrived dependent variable. D.a composite dependent variable.
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D.observe the world around you
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The best way to get an experimental idea is to A.sit at a desk and think of all possible independent variables that you could manipulate B.ask your instructor what would be an interesting experiment C.see a psychiatrist D.observe the world around you
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B.extraneous events affecting the groups in a study differently.
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The History threat to internal validity refers to A.testing knowledge that participants do not have a historical knowledge of. B.extraneous events affecting the groups in a study differently. C.subjects who drop out of a study because of their advanced age. D.the fact that no study is original; the questions have already been asked.
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A.The time to press the button.
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Suppose I wanted to know whether it takes someone longer to match pictures depending upon the rotational orientation of the pictures. I pick 10 simple pictures of objects such as chairs and fruit and present one picture on the left and one on the right to 30 participants. Half the time the objects match and the participant should push the match button and half the time they don’t match and a second button should be pushed. When the objects match, a third of the time the one on the right is rotated 0 degrees, 90 degrees, or 180 degrees respectively. I measure the time to press the match button in these three cases. I expect that it will take longer to press the button the greater the rotation. What is the dependent variable? A.The time to press the button. B.The degree of rotation of the right picture. C.Which picture is being presented. D.None of the above.
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D.all of the above.
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The Method section should include information about A.participants. B.apparatus or materials. C.procedure, including the design of the study. D.all of the above.
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False
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A test’s validity is high if giving the same test a second time results in similar scores A. True B. False
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D.veridical validity
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There are several forms of test validity. Which alternative listed below is NOT a form of test validity? A.face validity B.content validity C.predictive validity D.veridical validity
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False
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One problem with the case history approach is that it requires sophisticated statistical analysis. A. True B. False

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