PSY 301 Exam 3

According to Weinberg’s study on intrinsic motivation in a competitive setting,
success produces higher levels of intrinsic motivation than does failure AND males exhibit higher levels of intrinsic motivation after success than after failure.

Which of the following is a psychological need included in self-determination theory?
relatedness AND autonomy

According to the result of Komaki and Barnett’s study of a Pop Warner football team,
the team performed three plays more effectively after the intervention.

Which of the following is NOT a finding regarding passion and sport?
harmonious passion predicts rigid persistence in ill-advised activities (such as gambling)

Which of the following statements is true?
A negative coaching style (principally critical in nature) can lead to a decrease in intrinsic motivation AND Every reward has both controlling and preparation aspects to it.

Which of the following in NOT a dimension of flow?
high levels of arousal

Performance feedback is most effective when providing in what manner?
autonomy-supportive

Which of the following is a guideline for giving a pep talk?
give players a plan AND use humor

Which of the following can be useful as an on-site strategy to help reduce tension?
all of these

Which of the following statements is true regarding research findings on coping in sport?
athletes use both adaptive and nonadaptive coping strategies AND athletes who had more adaptive coping strategies had better performances.

A good way to increase awareness of psychological states in sport is to
monitor and record your psychological states immediately after practice and competition.

Which of the following levels of effort produced the fastest running times of 400-meter runners?
95%

The Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT) uses what modality to help cope with the “yips”?
acupuncture

Ideally, a psychological skills training (PST) program should be planned, implemented, and supervised by a
AASP-certified sport psychology consultant

Although such training is not generally recommended, what type of athletes has research found was able to have intensive mental training just a few days before competition and be successful?
elite athletes

What was the main problem that the basketball player (Jim) faced shooting free throws in the case study presented at the beginning of the chapter?
He had not developed the psychological skill of relaxation

When is it generally best to implement a PST program?
during the off-season or preseason

The first systematic mental skills training program occurred in which country?
Soviet Union

Which of the following is NOT a phase in PST?
intervention phase

Which of the following is FALSE concerning psychological skills training?
PST is only for problem athletes

Which of the following is NOT a common problem in implementing PST programs?
the sport psychologist’s knowledge of psychological skill exercises

Which of the following is NOT a situation requiring mental toughness according to a recent study?
autocratic coach

When is it generally best implement a PST program?
during the off-season or preseason

In a study investigating the use of a sport psychology consultant with collegiate teams, the major issue for not hiring these consultants was
financial

The PST knowledge base has come from what source?
a and b

Feedback can provide instructional information about
b and c

A study on reducing inappropriate tennis behaviors using behavior modification techniques revealed that
inappropriate behaviors were significantly reduced for all five players

an individual will have a higher level of intrinsic motivation when
the informational aspect is more salient than the controlling aspect

a smile or pat on the back is known as what type of reinforcer?
social

Which of the following is seen as the most extrinsically motivated behavior?
external regulation

English football players rated their coaches more highly if the coaches used verbal as pooposed to physical punishment. However, players from which country did NOT distinguish between verbal or physical punishment?
Japan

Receiving a reward that provides feedback concerning an athlete’s sense of competence is an example of
the informational aspect of reward

progressive relaxation was developed by
Edmund Jacobson

although there are many definitions of resiliency, they seem to have in common the two core concepts of
adversity and adaption

The gradual countercondtioning of anxiety using relaxation’s the incompatible or competing response is known as
systematic desensitization

the suggested ratio for the time of inhalation to exhalation when using breath control as a relaxation device is
1:2

According to research with elite athletes by Gould and colleagues, athletes
a and c

Which of the following is NOT a coping strategy typically employed by elite athletes?
superstition

excess anxiety can produce
all of these

Relaxation (anxiety reduction) techniques are usually classified as
cognitive and somatic

According to the research on biofeedback by Landers and his colleagues,
all of these

Which of the following is NOT a phase in the hypnosis process?
autogenic phase

effective breathing begins in the
diaphragm

According to Vealey, which of the following is NOT part of psychological skills training program?
communication skills

Sport psychology topics that form the basis for PST programs include which of the following?
a and b

Which of the following demonstrates psychological skills training?
a and b

In general, most coaches state that their sport is at least what percentage mental?
50%

the studies investigating the effectiveness of PST in enhancing performance have generally found
b and c

Mental toughness can be seen as being “caught” or “taught.” Which of the following is an example of mental toughness being “caught?”
setting up practices to simulate game situations

Shaping occurs when
rewards are given to behaviors that approximate the correct response

Which of the following statements about flow is FALSE?
Individual sport athletes get into flow more often than team sport athletes

The most effective type of feedback for retention of a skill is
intermittent

Flow is maximized when you are against an opponent
of equal ability

Burton (1989a), in a study of basketball skills, found that
goal setting enhanced performance more for low-complexity tasks when compared to high-complexity tasks.

Burton contends that athletes who set outcome goals will experience more anxiety and lower self-confidence in competition; this is
a and c

The phrase “out of sight, out of mind” is a reminder to
write your goals down and place them where they can be seen

According to the research of Burton and colleagues (2013) that investigated personality and goal setting, what type of athlete was best at using goal setting?
performance-oriented

It is recommended that appropriate goals be
a combination of short- and long-term

Which of the following goal types (according to research by Filby and colleagues) would produce the best performance?
a combination of goals

Research has indicated that live and filmed modeling increases self-efficacy in muscular-endurance tasks. This is an example of
vicarious experiences

Modeling can enhance performance. Which of the following modeling factors has NOT been shown to influence performance?
passionate models

Confidence is usually defined by sport psychologists as the
believe that you can successfully perform a desired behavior

Which of the following is FALSE?
Coaches provide more beneficial feedback to low-expectance athletes

Confidence is seen as multidimensional, consisting of confidence in
all of these

Self-efficacy theory was originated by
Albert Bandura

Which of the following points about self-efficacy theory is true?
a and c

The PETTLEP model emphasizes which of the following critical factors in imagery practice?
a and c

To determine whether using imagery is effective, evidence has been gathered using which of the following methods?
a and b

According to research, the most effective types of imagery scripts are
video and audio

Which of the following is NOT a use of imagery?
reducing the amount of physical practice time

Psychological explanations for the effectiveness of imagery include a focus on
b and c

The most effective type of imagery for helping athletes maintain confidence and stay focused is
cognitive specific

According to Pavio’s work on the different functions of imagery, a person’s imagery of staying relaxed under pressure would be an example of
motivational-specific imagery

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