When Ebbinghaus pioneered the experimental study of memory, he memorized….
In psychology, the term memory refers to,
generally, the retention of information
Your friend asks you to name all the counties in North Carolina. This is a memory test that psychologists would call a ___________ test.
The savings (or relearning) method of testing memory
can detect weaker memories than the cued recall method can
Which method of testing memory is most likely to show signs of memory even in people who claim that they do not remember something at all?
The telephone company’s use of area codes (eg. 209) and 3 digit local exchanges (eg. 555) followed by different 4-digit phone numbers makes it easier to remember the numbers of several different friends because of
The encoding specificity principle refers to the fact that retrieval cues are more effective in stimulating a memory if those retrieval cues
are derived from what people were thinking about when they formed the memory
According to the principle of encoding specificity, if you want to do well on a particular exam you should
make your study conditions similar as possible to the conditions under which you will be tested
If you were trying to remember the names of US presidents, according to the serial order effect you would probably have the most trouble remembering
the ones near the middle of the order
To use the method of loci in order to memorize a list of names, what is the first thing a person would do?
Memorize a list of place in order
You memorize twenty poems while your twin plays video games. Then both of you memorize another poem and you forget it faster. Why did you forget it faster?
A psychologist asks participants to read a story and then to tell it. The psychologist notes the ways in which the story is distorted and the ways in which participants fill in the gaps in their memory. Which aspect of memory is the psychologist probably investigating?
Since Orca’s brain operation she has been unable to store any new memories to recall them an hour or more later. However, she still recalls everything that happened before her operation. What kind of memory loss does she have?
Which of the following is NOT true of Alzheimer’s disease?
It involves degeneration of neurons associated with the release and reception of dopamine.
Behaviorism began, in part, as a protest against psychologists who tried to study
people’s reports of their mental experiences
Who said “Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select”?
John B. Watson
In an experiment on classical conditioning, a tone is followed by a puff of air to the eyes. After several repetitions, subjects blink their eyes when they hear the tone. In this experiment the blinking is the _____________ and tone is the ___________.
Conditioned response…..conditioned stimulus
At the beginning of an experiment on classical conditioning,
the unconditioned response elicits a unconditioned response automatically
E.B. Twitmeyer paired a sound with a hammer tap and observed a patellar reflex. In this experiment the conditioned response was the
reflex to the sound
After several pairings of a beeping sound with an electric shock, a person reacts to the beeping sound by flinching, increased heart rate, and other signs of fear. How could someone extinguish this response?
Present the beeping sound alone, repeatedly
What is spontaneous recovery?
An increase in responding after a delay following extinction
Watson and Rayner’s study with Little Albert showed that phobias
can develop through learning
Edward Thorndike, a pioneer in the study of cats escaping from puzzle boxes, argued that animal learning depends on
reinforcements that increase the probabilities of certain behaviors
What did Thorndyke mean by the Law of Effect?
Responses that are followed by reinforcement become more probable
What do positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement have in common with each other?
They both strengthen a targeted behavior (i.e. terminal response)
If your employer gave you a bonus pay for working overtime you would probably work overtime more. This is an example of
Suppose a cat has learned to push against a pedal in order to escape from a puzzle box, like one of Thorndyke’s. What procedure would lead to the extinction of this response?
Let the cat push against the pedal many times without opening the box.
Another term for the Skinner box is the
An experimenter wishes to provide reinforcement for a rat every time it presses a lever. But the rate never presses the lever. Therefore the experimenter decides to use the procedure of shaping. What will the experimenter do first?
Reinforce the rat for a behavior that approximates pressing a lever
According to lecture information, a secondary reinforcer
gains its value from association with a primary reinforcer
An individual receives a reinforcement every tenth response. Which type of schedule of reinforcement is this?
Maintaining stability of temperature, body weight, body water, and other biological conditions is known as
Damage to the lateral hypothalamus leads to __________. Damage to the ventromedial hypothalamus and axons that pass nearby leads to ___________.
Weight loss…….weight gain
What kind of people try to cheer themselves up by overeating?
both overweight and normal-weight people
In a study, women were asked which female figure men considered most attractive. How accurate were the women’s guesses?
Most women guessed too thin a figure.
can be fatal
Which of the following is true regarding cultural influences on the development of anorexia?
Anorexia is most common in cultures that emphasize thinness
People who alternate between excessive eating and self-starvation suffer from a condition known as
People are offered a choice among an easy task, and a very difficult task. Which kind of person is most likely to choose the intermediate task?
Someone with a strong desire for success and a high need for achievement
Which of the following approaches to motivation would emphasize the influence of conscious goal setting and decision making on our behavior?
A couch that wants to increase the performance of an athlete should set which kind of goal?
A challenging but realistic goal
The term “attribution” refers to the process of
assigning causes to behavior
Although emotion is difficult to define, most psychologists would agree that emotion includes the following four dimensions:
cognition, feelings, actions, physiology
Emotions are generally associated with changes in the activity of the ________ nervous system
According to the James-Langue theory of emotion,
you start trembling has nothing to do with your feeling afraid.
Someone whose facial expression is molded into a smile (without being told to “smile” and without any happy event) reports
a happier than normal reaction to common stimuli
In the experiment by Schachter and Singer, participants were given injections of epinephrine and put into a situation that might arouse emotions. Which participants were hypothesized to show the least intensity of emotional responses?
Those who were given no instructions about the effects of the injection
Children who are born deaf and blind
spontaneously develop normal expressions of smiling, frowning, laughing, and crying.
Based on research in which people of various cultures are shown pictures of facial expressions and asked to identify the emotions represented, we can conclude
people throughout the world use similar facial expressions
Some amount of stress occurs in response to
both pleasant and unpleasant events
According to Selye, what is the natural order of changes the body goes through in response to stress?
alarm, resistance, exhaustion
You have impulsively volunteered for an experiment on the effects of electric shock on performance. You now have a choice among three schedules for receiving exactly twenty shocks. Which of these schedules, if any, would probably prove to be the most stressful?
20 shocks delivered on an irregular basis, without any warning schedule