PSY 100 Chapter 5

Dr. Joan Goodman is studying how memory changes as people get older. She is most likely a _______ psychologist
Developmental

In Piaget’s stage of concrete operational intelligence, the child acquires an understanding of the principle of
conversation

Piaget held that egocentrism is characteristic of the
preoperational stage

During which stage of cognitive development do children acquire object permanence?
sensorimotor

Newborns vigorously root for a nipple when
Their cheek is touched

The Harlows’ studies of attachment in monkeys showed that
a cloth mother produced the greatest attachment response

When psychologists discuss maturation, they are referring to stages of growth that are NOT influenced by
nurture

The developmental theorist who suggested that securely attached children develop an attitude of basic trust is
Erikson

Research findings of infant motor development are consistent with the idea that
maturation of physical skills is relatively unaffected by experience

According to Erikson, the central psychological challenges pertaining to adolescence, young adulthood, and middle age, respectively, are
identity formation; intimacy; generativity

In preconventional morality, the person
obeys to avoid punishment or to gain concrete rewards

Which of the following is correct?
a. Early maturation places both boys and girls at a distinct social advantage
b. Early maturing girls are more popular and self-assured than girls who mature late
c. Early maturation places both boys and girls at a distinct social disadvantage
d. Early maturing boys are more popular and self-assured than boys who mature late
d. Early maturing boys are more popular and self-assured than boys who mature late

Among the hallmarks of growing up are a boy’s first ejaculations and a girl’s first menstrual period, which is also called
menarche

A person’s general ability to think abstractly is called ________ intelligence. The ability generally _______ with age.
fluid; decreases

An older person who can look back on life with satisfaction and reminisce with a sense of completion has attained Erikson’s stage of
integrity

The cognitive ability that has been shown to decline during adulthood is the ability to
recall new information

Which of the following statements concerning the effects of aging is true?
a. Aging almost inevitably leads to total memory failure if the individual lives long enough
b. Aging increases susceptibility to short-term ailments such as the flu
c. Significant increaes in life satisfaction are associatied with aging
d. The aging process can be significantly afected by the individual’s activity patterns.
d. The aging process can be significantly affected by the individual’s activity patterns

The end of menstruation is called
menopause

According to Piaget, the ability to think logically about abstract propositions is indicative of the stage of
formal operations

The average age at which puberty begins is _______ in boys; in girls it is_________.
13;11

Adolescence is marked by the onset of
puberty

Stranger anxiety develops soon after:
a.the concept of conservation.
b.egocentrism.
c.a theory of mind.
d.the concept of object permanence.
d.the concept of object permanence.

Before Piaget, people were more likely to believe that:
a.the child’s mind is a miniature model of the adult’s.
b.children think about the world in radicallydifferent ways from adults.
c.the child’s mind develops through a series ofstages.
d.children interpret their experiences in terms oftheir current understandings.
a.the child’s mind is a miniature model of the adult’s.

Which is the correct sequence of stages in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development?
a.sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete opera-tional, formal operational
b.sensorimotor, preoperational, formal opera-tional, concrete operational
c.preoperational, sensorimotor, concrete opera-tional, formal operational
d.preoperational, sensorimotor, formal opera-tional, concrete operational
a.sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete opera-tional, formal operational

A child can be born a drug addict because:
a.drugs used by the mother will pass into the child’s bloodstream.
b.addiction is an inherited personality trait.
c.drugs used by the mother create geneticdefects in her chromosomes.
d.the fetus’ blood has not yet developed a resis-tance to drugs.
a.drugs used by the mother will pass into the child’s bloodstream.

A child whose mother drank heavily when she was pregnant is at heightened risk of:
a.being emotionally excitable during childhood.
b.becoming insecurely attached.
c.being born with the physical and cognitiveabnormalities of fetal alcohol syndrome.
d.addiction to a range of drugs throughout life.
c.being born with the physical and cognitiveabnormalities of fetal alcohol syndrome.

Which is the correct order of stages of prenatal development?
a.zygote, fetus, embryo
b.zygote, embryo, fetus
c.embryo, zygote, fetus
d.embryo, fetus, zygote
b.zygote, embryo, fetus

The term critical period refers to:
a.prenatal development.
b.the initial 2 hours after a child’s birth.
c.the preoperational stage.
d.a restricted time for learning.
d.a restricted time for learning.

Which of the following was not found by Harlow in socially deprived monkeys?
a.They had difficulty mating.
b.They showed extreme fear or aggression when first seeing other monkeys.
c.They showed abnormal physical develop-ment.
d.The females were abusive mothers.
c.They showed abnormal physical develop-ment.

Most people’s earliest memories do not predate of age.
a.6 months
c.2 years
b.1 year
d.3 years
d.3 years

Insecurely attached infants who are left by their mothers in an unfamiliar setting often will:
a.hold fast to their mothers on their return.
b.explore the new surroundings confidently.
c.be indifferent toward their mothers on their return.
d.display little emotion at any time.
c.be indifferent toward their mothers on their return.

Whose stage theory of moral development was based on how people reasoned about ethical dilemmas?
a.Erikson
c.Harlow
b.Piaget
d.Kohlberg
d.Kohlberg

The social clock refers to:
a.an individual or society’s distribution of workand leisure time.
b.adulthood responsibilities.
c.typical ages for starting a career, marrying,and so on.
d.age-related changes in one’s circle of friends.
c.typical ages for starting a career, marrying,and so on.

To which of Kohlberg’s levels would moral rea-soning based on the existence of fundamental human rights pertain?
a.preconventional morality
b.conventional morality
c.postconventional morality
d.generative morality
c.postconventional morality

In Erikson’s theory, individuals generally focus on _____ developing during adolescence and then _____ during young adulthood.
a.identity; intimacy
b.intimacy; identity
c.basic trust; identity
d.identity; basic trust
a.identity; intimacy

Notable achievements in fields such as are ____ often made by younger adults in their late twenties or early thirties, when _____ intelligence is at its peak.
a.mathematics; fluid
b.philosophy; fluid
c.science; crystallized
d.literature; crystallized
a.mathematics; fluid

After their grown children have left home, most couples experience:
a.the distress of the “empty nest syndrome.”
bincreased strain in their marital relationship.
c.both a. and b.
d.greater happiness and enjoyment in their rela-tionship.
d.greater happiness and enjoyment in their rela-tionship.

A person’s accumulation of stored information, ____ called intelligence, generally with _____ age.
a.fluid; decreases
b.fluid; increases
c.crystallized; decreases
d.crystallized; increases
d.crystallized; increases

In terms of incidence, susceptibility to short-term illnesses ____ with age and susceptibility to long-term ailments ____ with age.
a.decreases; increases
b.increases; decreases
c.increases; increases
d.decreases; decreases
a.decreases; increases

Research on the American family indicates that:
a.fewer than 23 percent of unmarried adults, but nearly 40 percent of married adults, report being “very happy” with life.
b.the divorce rate is now one-half the marriage rate.
c.of those who divorce, 75 percent remarry.
d.all of the above are true.
d.all of the above are true

The popular idea that terminally ill and bereaved people go through predictable stages, such as denial, anger, and so forth:
a. is widely supported by research.
b. more accurately describes grieving in some cultures than others.
c. is true of women but not men.
d. is not supported by research studies.
d. is not supported by research studies.

teratogens
agents that cause malformations in the developing embryo or fetus
Examples: drugs, x-rays, pathogens, heavy metals, maternal diseases/conditions

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/FAS (now renamed Fetal Alcohol Spectrum (range of severity) Disorders)
Symptoms: Head and Facial malformations – small head/fewer brain cells, low nasal bridge, short nose, eye folds. Behavior – irritable, extremely short attention spans, repetitive body movements. Cognitive impairments – severe mental retardation, executive functioning problems from frontal lobe damage.

What does alcohol do to the developing brain?
Birth Neurons – too few neurons causes small brain and flat outer brain
Migration – traveling and don’t know when to stop

hydrocephalus (water on the brain)
cerebral fluid squishes brain to side of skull. Center of brain is filled with fluid.

Becoming an expert:
1. Expert knowledge differs from nonexpert knowledge.
2. It takes about 10,000 hours or 10 years, to become an expert in anything.
3. Expertise is built by deliberate practice that targets your areas of weakness.

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