PSU nutrition Flashcard

List the B vitamins
thiamin
riboflavin
niacin
B6
folate
B12
Biotin
Panthothenic acid
What are the fat soluble vitamins?
Vitamin A, D, E and K
What is a vitamin?
an organic compound required in small amounts in the diet (less than a gram) they promote regular chemical reactions, growth, reproduction and maintenance of health
what is Fortification?
vitamins added to foods through fortification
what is enrichment?
What function does vitamin c serve?
-antioxidant in body fluids to protect:
-blood
-dna
-WBC
-lining of lungs and stomach mucosa
-deactivates hisamine
-helps form collagen
Sources of Vitamin C?
found in fruits/veg as ascorbic acid
-citrus
-green peppers
-brocolli
spinach
strabwerries
romain lettuce
kiwi
brussel sprouts
What is Scurvy?
caused by Vitamin c deficiency
fatigue
hemmorhages
bleeding gums
loose teeth
muscle degeneration
bone fragility and death
Toxicity of Vitamin C?
excess is removed from bodily fluids
high doses can result in diarrhea nausea and cramps
Who needs to consume more vit c?
smokers
What are the different forms of vitamin B?
Thiamin
Roboflavin
Niacin
B6
folate
B12
biotin
pantothenic acid
What is the general function of B vitamins?
coenzymes!

which are non protein molecules that act as carriers of electrons or atoms in metabolic reactions

What is the function of Thiamin?
aka B1
part of coenzyme Tpp
What are srouces of Thiamin?
pork
sunflower seeds
whole grains
legymes
enriched grains
What happens when one is deficient in thiamin?
beriberi- muscle weakness, edema, depression, nervous system and heart damage
What is the function of Riboflavin?
aka B12

coenzyme in the release of energy from nutrients

part of FMN and FAD in the TCA cycle and breakdown of fatty acids and the ETC

Sources of Riboflavin?
milk
grains
liver
oysters
brewers yeast
deficient in riboflavin =?
is a condition called ariboflavinosis which is when cell growth is retarded
a decrease in healing rapid in the skin and eyes and lips
usually in combo with other deficiencies
Functions of Niacin?
a coenzyme NAD/NADH and NADP and is involved in oxidation/reduction reactions
sources of niacin?
enriched grains
beef
chicken
turkey
fish or tryptophan
deficient in niacin = ?
results in pellegra!
s/s
rough/raw skin
4 d’s: dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia and death
decreased appetitie and weight
What is pellegra?
caused by a niacin deficiency

usually caused by eatin too much corn or white rice

Toxicity of niacin?
flushing of skin
itching
nausea and liver damage
Vitamin B6 functions?
-transamination reactions
main coenzyme is PLP which activates enzymes needed for metabolism of sugs fats and protein

synthesis of Hb and histamine
gene expression

sources of vitamin b6?
meat
fish
poultry
whoel grains
bananas
spinach
Who needs to take Niacin suplements?
alcholoics and ppl on meds that decrease b6’s
toxicity of vitamin B6?
only from supplements
can lead to nerve damage
FOlate functions?
coenzyme THEA
necessary for DNA and RNA synthesis
cell division
rapid cell turnover
amino acid metabolism
deficiency of folate?
impairs cell division and protein synthesis
megablastic anemia
preggo + neural tube defects
who needs to consume more B 6?
POOR DIET
ELDERLY
ALCOHOLIC
KIDNEY DIALYSIS
LIVER DISEASE
who is at risk for folate deficiencies?
alcholoics
maabsorptive liver disease
kidney dislysis
sources of folate?
*leafy greens
*liver
grains
*legumes
veg
fort cereals
toxicity of folate?
only from supplements
skin/respiratory disorders
epilepsey
excess can mask B12 deficiency
B12 functions?
-helps convert COA to sCOA in the TCA cycle
recycles folate enxymes
nerve function
maintain myelin sheaths
prevents megaplastic anemia
sources of B12?
sythensized by bacteria in intestines
live
animal products
some yeasts
deficiency of B12?
-usually due to decreased absorption abilits and decrease in gastic acids(elderly)

pernicious anemia
nerve damage
weakness
paralysis
death

Functions of Biotin?
aka vitamin d
is a coenzyme in the TCA cycle
glucose synthesis
metabolism offatty acids and amino acids
sources of Biotin?
califlower
yolk
liver
peanuts
cheese
deficiency of biotin?
very rare (have little numbers)
from raw eggs or anticoagulant drugs

-nausea
thinning hair/hair loss
loss of hair color
skin rashes
depression
hallucinations
tingling

Panthothenic acids?
*coenzyme A* for metablism of fat,sugar and protein

from meatt, mushrooms liver and peanuts

deficiency: rare seen in sevear malnutrition usually

do deficiencies usually occur alone?
no except beriberi and pellegra
Vitamin A functions?
part of the visual pigment rhodopsin
regulates growth and d/dx of cells
gene expression
sperm development
favors bone formation
maintence of epithelial tissues
What is nigh blindness?
inadequate amounts of retinal(vit a form) to reform rhodopsin
needed for night vision
Retinoic acids function?
influences hoe epithelial cells d/dx and mature
(vit a)
Xeroprithalamia
major cause of blindness ( VIt a deficiency)
follicular hyperkeratosis
skin disorder from low levels of vitamin a
vitamin A’s role in immunity?
maintains protective barriers (epi and mucus)
helps produce lymphocytes and Ab’s
sources of Vitamin A?
preformes: liver, fish oils fortified milk and eggs
pumpkin pie?

proformes: dark leafy greens yellow/orange fruit/veg

Beta carotene functions/sources/deficiency?
-weak antioxidant, oxidation of LDL’s in cell membranes

from fruits/veg that are red/orange and yellow

deficiency of beta carotene?
primary: uncommon
secondary: cystic fibrosis, impaired bile production, extremely low fat diets, zinc deficiency
what is VADD?
vitamin A deficiency disorder
increase infection rate
night blindness
xerophthalmaddry – eyes/blind
hyperkeratosis – rough skin
Vitamin A toxicity
from excess consumption of liver
taking too many supplements
polar bear liver
hypercarotenemia
results from high levels in carotenoids from foods

skin turns yellow (not harmful)

Carotenoid toxicity
blured visiton
liver
abnoramal decrease bone strength
birth defects
increase in lunch cancer
hypercarotenemia
non preo pitamin a
cant become vitamin a
considered a phytochemical
include lycopene
lycopene
tomatoes
cancer prevention
cataract prevention
luetin
brocolli
brussel sprouts
spinach
kale
macular degeneration
breast cancer
antioxidants
vitamins donate their electrons to the free radicals to stabilize them, some destroy the free radicals (selelnium)

ex
vit c
deta carotene
vit E

Functions of Vitamin E?
acts as an antioxidant, prevents oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids
decreases chances of cataracts and bv plaques
proposed functions of vitamin E?
protect against heart disease
inhibiting LDL oxidation
inhibiting plaque formation
increading eicosanioids that dencrease blood pressure and blood clot formation
sources of vitamin E?
sunflower seeds
vegetable oil
almonds
nuts
leafy greens
whole grains
Toxicity of Vitamin E?
from supplements and will interfear with blood clotting action of vitamin K = hemmorhage
deficiency of vitamin E?
hemolytic anemia
peripheral neuralpathy
decreased bile production
very rare but occurs in infants and people with decreased fat absorption
Vitamin D function?
bone growth
regulation of gene expression and cell d/dx
hormones, collagen, ca,ph,mg and Fl
regulation of blood calcium levels
sources of Vitamin D?
sunlight
fatty fish
fortified milk
liver
beef
eggs
Vitamin Deficiencies?
less calcium is absorber
bone matrix cant mineralize = rubbery bones
rickets
What is Rickets?
caused by a vitamin D deficiency
bowed legs in children
fixed by milk fortification
Who needs to consume more Vitamin D?
ppl who live in smog areas
overcast weather
short days
have dark skin
wear sunscreen
old age
Vitamin Toxicity?
higher in take results in an increase in blood concentration and urine

calcium is deposited in soft tissues

cv dmaage
affects nervoud system
promotes bone loss

caused by supplementation and hyper calcemia

Vitamin K function?
production of blood clotting proteitn prothrombin

involved in blood clotting

binds ca2+

Sources of vitamin K?
bacteria in intestines
milk
liver
eggs
leafy greens
veg oils
Vitamin K deficicency?
rare
occurs with fat malabsorption or after long term antibiotics
results in failure to form clots
interfears with anticoagulant medications
Who is at risk for vitamin K deficiency?
infants with low vit k stores
intestines without bacteria
VKDB vit d defiecency dleesing
what is a mineral?
an element needed by the body in small amounts for structure and to regulate reactions and bodily processed
what are the bodies major positive electrolytes?
sodium and potassium!
functions of Sodium?
electrolyte balance
nerve impulse transmission
muscle contraction
Excess sodium =?
hypertension = 140/90
heart disease
what is the dash diet/?
low na
high ca, k and mg

high fiber
low fat
med protein

toxicity of sodium?
hypertension
stomach cancer
ulcers
heartburn
kidney stones
osteoperosis
Functions of chloride? Toxicity? Sources?
maintains normal fluid and electrolyte balance

part of HCl in the stomach

too much = vomiting
sources: salt, meat processed foods

Function of Potassium?
major cation in the intracellular fluid

fluid balance
nerve impulse
decrease BP
muscle contraction

Potassium deficicency =?
poor apetite
muscle cramps
confusion
apathy
constipation
irregular HB
who usually have a potassium deficiency?
alcoholics
ppl who use direutics
ana/mia
toxicity of potassium?
harmless when kidneys func fine = GI upset

not: high blood potassium levels which inhibits heart function

Functions of calcium?
nerve trans
muscle contractions
BP regulation
releases hormones
blood clotting
prevents colon cancer
sources of calcium?
dairy
kale
tofu
canned fish
fortified bfast cereals
toxicity of calcium?
constipation
increase in chances of kidney stones
interfere with absorption of zinc, iron and magnesium
Calcium deficiency?
stunted growth in children
bone loss in adults
What is PTH?
parathyroid hormone

-secreted when blood calcium is too low
-released from parathyroid gland
-increases blood callcium levels

what is calcitonin?
-secreted by the thyroid when blood calcium levels are too high
-decreases calcium blood levels
what increases the absorption on ca?
preggo
children
taking estrogen.testerone
vitamin d
calcium binding protein
acidic environment
what decreases calcium absorption?
high fiber
low vitamin d
tanins
menopause
aging
Function of phosphorus?
80% in bones
ATP
DNA/RNA
phospholipids
acid/base balance
sources of phosphorus?
liver
dairy
soda
meats yogurt
deficiency of phosphorus?
bone loss
decreased growth
poor tooth development
who are the people at risk for phosphorus deficiency?
premature babies
alcoholics
elderly with poor diets
diarrhea
aluminum antacids
Functions of Magnesium?
cofactors in enzymes
activaates ATP
dna/rna synthesis
nervous and cardiac function
insulin release
dilate arteries
sources of magnesium?
spinach
leafy greens
sunflower seeds
garbonzo beans
aomonds
oatmeal
ww bread
chocolate
magnesium deficiency =?
develops slowly
irregular heartbead
icreased blood pressure
weakness
vomiting
muscle spasms
disorientation
nausea
seizures
who is at risk for MG deficiency?
ppl who use direuitcs
lots of perspiration
long term diarrhea and vomiting
alcoholics
function of Iron?
hemoglobin in RBCS
myoglobin
ETC
enzyme cofactor
immune function
what are the two types of iron?
heme (animal-25 %)
and
non heme (plant 17%)
what increases the absorption of iron?
MEP factor
vitamin c
citric and lactic acid
what decreases the absorption of iron
phylates and fibers’vegetable proteins
calcium in milk
who needs to consume more Fe?
vegetarians
adolesent girls
women less than 51
iron sources
cook in iron pan
clams
liver
parsley
beans
rice
what causes iron deficiency?
most common, caused by blood loss, malaria, parasites, menstruration, stage of life
s/s of iron deficiency?
fatigue
weakness
headaches
apathy
pallor
poor resistances to cold temps
behavioral adhd
energy metabolism impaires
what causes toxicity of iron?
caused by hemochromatosis, blood transfucions, suppllements and metabolic disorders
s/s of iron toxicity?
tissue damage
infection
diabetes
liver cancer
heart disease
arthritis
nausea
constipation
vomit
runs
shock
confusion
increased HR
weak pulse
function of zinc?
promotes healthy immune system
cofactor
dna and protein synthesis
cell division
protein alcohol metabolic
cell membrane
eye function
wound healing
development of sexual maturity
who is at risk for zinc deficiency?
alcoholica
preggos
poor nutrition
sources of zinc?
animal products
oysters
red meat
shellfish
whole grains
legumes
nuts
greens
deficiency of zinc = ?
inhibits copper absorption
decreases HDL
increase heart disease
runs
cramps
nausea
vomiting
depressed immune system
selenium sources?
fish
meat eggs
milk
shell fish
whole grains
nuts
**brazil nuts**
functio os selenium?
defend against free radicals
regulate thyroid function
play a rolein immune function

part of a group of proteins called selenoproteins

selenium deficency?
muscle pain/weakness
cardiomyoapthy
keshan disease- kid heart block vessel disease
who is at risk for selenium deficiency?
people with gi diseases which lower absorption

and placed where selinium is low in the soil

toxicity s/s of selenium?
brittle hair
rashes
cirrhosis of the liver
function of iodine?
synthesis of thyroid hormone
Iodide deficiency?
enlargement of thyroid
decreased metabolic rate
toxicity of iodide results in?
inhibition of thyroid hormone synthesis
sources of idiodine?
chocolate milkshake
yogurt
milke
who is at risk for iodine deficency?
pregos
kids get cretinism + mental retardation
functions of flouride?
protects teeth from cavities
deficency/.
increased risk of dental caries
toxicity?
too much tap water in kids or
too much toothpaste
what are the water soluable vitamins?
* B vitamins
+ thiamin
+ riboflavin
+ niacin
+ biotin
+ pantothenic acid
+ vitamin B6
+ folate
+ vitamin B12

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