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PSU nutrition

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List the B vitamins
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thiamin
riboflavin
niacin
B6
folate
B12
Biotin
Panthothenic acid
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What are the fat soluble vitamins?
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Vitamin A, D, E and K
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What is a vitamin?
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an organic compound required in small amounts in the diet (less than a gram) they promote regular chemical reactions, growth, reproduction and maintenance of health
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what is Fortification?
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vitamins added to foods through fortification
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what is enrichment?
answer

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What function does vitamin c serve?
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-antioxidant in body fluids to protect:
-blood
-dna
-WBC
-lining of lungs and stomach mucosa
-deactivates hisamine
-helps form collagen
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Sources of Vitamin C?
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found in fruits/veg as ascorbic acid
-citrus
-green peppers
-brocolli
spinach
strabwerries
romain lettuce
kiwi
brussel sprouts
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What is Scurvy?
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caused by Vitamin c deficiency
fatigue
hemmorhages
bleeding gums
loose teeth
muscle degeneration
bone fragility and death
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Toxicity of Vitamin C?
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excess is removed from bodily fluids
high doses can result in diarrhea nausea and cramps
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Who needs to consume more vit c?
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smokers
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What are the different forms of vitamin B?
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Thiamin
Roboflavin
Niacin
B6
folate
B12
biotin
pantothenic acid
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What is the general function of B vitamins?
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coenzymes!

which are non protein molecules that act as carriers of electrons or atoms in metabolic reactions

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What is the function of Thiamin?
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aka B1
part of coenzyme Tpp
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What are srouces of Thiamin?
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pork
sunflower seeds
whole grains
legymes
enriched grains
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What happens when one is deficient in thiamin?
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beriberi- muscle weakness, edema, depression, nervous system and heart damage
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What is the function of Riboflavin?
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aka B12

coenzyme in the release of energy from nutrients

part of FMN and FAD in the TCA cycle and breakdown of fatty acids and the ETC

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Sources of Riboflavin?
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milk
grains
liver
oysters
brewers yeast
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deficient in riboflavin =?
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is a condition called ariboflavinosis which is when cell growth is retarded
a decrease in healing rapid in the skin and eyes and lips
usually in combo with other deficiencies
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Functions of Niacin?
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a coenzyme NAD/NADH and NADP and is involved in oxidation/reduction reactions
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sources of niacin?
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enriched grains
beef
chicken
turkey
fish or tryptophan
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deficient in niacin = ?
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results in pellegra!
s/s
rough/raw skin
4 d’s: dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia and death
decreased appetitie and weight
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What is pellegra?
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caused by a niacin deficiency

usually caused by eatin too much corn or white rice

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Toxicity of niacin?
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flushing of skin
itching
nausea and liver damage
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Vitamin B6 functions?
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-transamination reactions
main coenzyme is PLP which activates enzymes needed for metabolism of sugs fats and protein

synthesis of Hb and histamine
gene expression

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sources of vitamin b6?
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meat
fish
poultry
whoel grains
bananas
spinach
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Who needs to take Niacin suplements?
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alcholoics and ppl on meds that decrease b6’s
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toxicity of vitamin B6?
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only from supplements
can lead to nerve damage
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FOlate functions?
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coenzyme THEA
necessary for DNA and RNA synthesis
cell division
rapid cell turnover
amino acid metabolism
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deficiency of folate?
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impairs cell division and protein synthesis
megablastic anemia
preggo + neural tube defects
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who needs to consume more B 6?
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POOR DIET
ELDERLY
ALCOHOLIC
KIDNEY DIALYSIS
LIVER DISEASE
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who is at risk for folate deficiencies?
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alcholoics
maabsorptive liver disease
kidney dislysis
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sources of folate?
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*leafy greens
*liver
grains
*legumes
veg
fort cereals
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toxicity of folate?
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only from supplements
skin/respiratory disorders
epilepsey
excess can mask B12 deficiency
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B12 functions?
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-helps convert COA to sCOA in the TCA cycle
recycles folate enxymes
nerve function
maintain myelin sheaths
prevents megaplastic anemia
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sources of B12?
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sythensized by bacteria in intestines
live
animal products
some yeasts
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deficiency of B12?
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-usually due to decreased absorption abilits and decrease in gastic acids(elderly)

pernicious anemia
nerve damage
weakness
paralysis
death

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Functions of Biotin?
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aka vitamin d
is a coenzyme in the TCA cycle
glucose synthesis
metabolism offatty acids and amino acids
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sources of Biotin?
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califlower
yolk
liver
peanuts
cheese
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deficiency of biotin?
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very rare (have little numbers)
from raw eggs or anticoagulant drugs

-nausea
thinning hair/hair loss
loss of hair color
skin rashes
depression
hallucinations
tingling

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Panthothenic acids?
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*coenzyme A* for metablism of fat,sugar and protein

from meatt, mushrooms liver and peanuts

deficiency: rare seen in sevear malnutrition usually

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do deficiencies usually occur alone?
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no except beriberi and pellegra
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Vitamin A functions?
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part of the visual pigment rhodopsin
regulates growth and d/dx of cells
gene expression
sperm development
favors bone formation
maintence of epithelial tissues
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What is nigh blindness?
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inadequate amounts of retinal(vit a form) to reform rhodopsin
needed for night vision
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Retinoic acids function?
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influences hoe epithelial cells d/dx and mature
(vit a)
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Xeroprithalamia
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major cause of blindness ( VIt a deficiency)
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follicular hyperkeratosis
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skin disorder from low levels of vitamin a
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vitamin A’s role in immunity?
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maintains protective barriers (epi and mucus)
helps produce lymphocytes and Ab’s
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sources of Vitamin A?
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preformes: liver, fish oils fortified milk and eggs
pumpkin pie?

proformes: dark leafy greens yellow/orange fruit/veg

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Beta carotene functions/sources/deficiency?
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-weak antioxidant, oxidation of LDL’s in cell membranes

from fruits/veg that are red/orange and yellow

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deficiency of beta carotene?
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primary: uncommon
secondary: cystic fibrosis, impaired bile production, extremely low fat diets, zinc deficiency
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what is VADD?
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vitamin A deficiency disorder
increase infection rate
night blindness
xerophthalmaddry – eyes/blind
hyperkeratosis – rough skin
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Vitamin A toxicity
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from excess consumption of liver
taking too many supplements
polar bear liver
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hypercarotenemia
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results from high levels in carotenoids from foods

skin turns yellow (not harmful)

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Carotenoid toxicity
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blured visiton
liver
abnoramal decrease bone strength
birth defects
increase in lunch cancer
hypercarotenemia
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non preo pitamin a
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cant become vitamin a
considered a phytochemical
include lycopene
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lycopene
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tomatoes
cancer prevention
cataract prevention
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luetin
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brocolli
brussel sprouts
spinach
kale
macular degeneration
breast cancer
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antioxidants
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vitamins donate their electrons to the free radicals to stabilize them, some destroy the free radicals (selelnium)

ex
vit c
deta carotene
vit E

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Functions of Vitamin E?
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acts as an antioxidant, prevents oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids
decreases chances of cataracts and bv plaques
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proposed functions of vitamin E?
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protect against heart disease
inhibiting LDL oxidation
inhibiting plaque formation
increading eicosanioids that dencrease blood pressure and blood clot formation
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sources of vitamin E?
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sunflower seeds
vegetable oil
almonds
nuts
leafy greens
whole grains
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Toxicity of Vitamin E?
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from supplements and will interfear with blood clotting action of vitamin K = hemmorhage
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deficiency of vitamin E?
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hemolytic anemia
peripheral neuralpathy
decreased bile production
very rare but occurs in infants and people with decreased fat absorption
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Vitamin D function?
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bone growth
regulation of gene expression and cell d/dx
hormones, collagen, ca,ph,mg and Fl
regulation of blood calcium levels
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sources of Vitamin D?
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sunlight
fatty fish
fortified milk
liver
beef
eggs
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Vitamin Deficiencies?
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less calcium is absorber
bone matrix cant mineralize = rubbery bones
rickets
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What is Rickets?
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caused by a vitamin D deficiency
bowed legs in children
fixed by milk fortification
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Who needs to consume more Vitamin D?
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ppl who live in smog areas
overcast weather
short days
have dark skin
wear sunscreen
old age
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Vitamin Toxicity?
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higher in take results in an increase in blood concentration and urine

calcium is deposited in soft tissues

cv dmaage
affects nervoud system
promotes bone loss

caused by supplementation and hyper calcemia

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Vitamin K function?
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production of blood clotting proteitn prothrombin

involved in blood clotting

binds ca2+

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Sources of vitamin K?
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bacteria in intestines
milk
liver
eggs
leafy greens
veg oils
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Vitamin K deficicency?
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rare
occurs with fat malabsorption or after long term antibiotics
results in failure to form clots
interfears with anticoagulant medications
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Who is at risk for vitamin K deficiency?
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infants with low vit k stores
intestines without bacteria
VKDB vit d defiecency dleesing
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what is a mineral?
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an element needed by the body in small amounts for structure and to regulate reactions and bodily processed
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what are the bodies major positive electrolytes?
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sodium and potassium!
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functions of Sodium?
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electrolyte balance
nerve impulse transmission
muscle contraction
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Excess sodium =?
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hypertension = 140/90
heart disease
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what is the dash diet/?
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low na
high ca, k and mg

high fiber
low fat
med protein

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toxicity of sodium?
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hypertension
stomach cancer
ulcers
heartburn
kidney stones
osteoperosis
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Functions of chloride? Toxicity? Sources?
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maintains normal fluid and electrolyte balance

part of HCl in the stomach

too much = vomiting
sources: salt, meat processed foods

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Function of Potassium?
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major cation in the intracellular fluid

fluid balance
nerve impulse
decrease BP
muscle contraction

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Potassium deficicency =?
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poor apetite
muscle cramps
confusion
apathy
constipation
irregular HB
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who usually have a potassium deficiency?
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alcoholics
ppl who use direutics
ana/mia
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toxicity of potassium?
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harmless when kidneys func fine = GI upset

not: high blood potassium levels which inhibits heart function

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Functions of calcium?
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nerve trans
muscle contractions
BP regulation
releases hormones
blood clotting
prevents colon cancer
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sources of calcium?
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dairy
kale
tofu
canned fish
fortified bfast cereals
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toxicity of calcium?
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constipation
increase in chances of kidney stones
interfere with absorption of zinc, iron and magnesium
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Calcium deficiency?
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stunted growth in children
bone loss in adults
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What is PTH?
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parathyroid hormone

-secreted when blood calcium is too low
-released from parathyroid gland
-increases blood callcium levels

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what is calcitonin?
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-secreted by the thyroid when blood calcium levels are too high
-decreases calcium blood levels
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what increases the absorption on ca?
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preggo
children
taking estrogen.testerone
vitamin d
calcium binding protein
acidic environment
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what decreases calcium absorption?
answer

high fiber
low vitamin d
tanins
menopause
aging
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Function of phosphorus?
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80% in bones
ATP
DNA/RNA
phospholipids
acid/base balance
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sources of phosphorus?
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liver
dairy
soda
meats yogurt
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deficiency of phosphorus?
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bone loss
decreased growth
poor tooth development
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who are the people at risk for phosphorus deficiency?
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premature babies
alcoholics
elderly with poor diets
diarrhea
aluminum antacids
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Functions of Magnesium?
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cofactors in enzymes
activaates ATP
dna/rna synthesis
nervous and cardiac function
insulin release
dilate arteries
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sources of magnesium?
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spinach
leafy greens
sunflower seeds
garbonzo beans
aomonds
oatmeal
ww bread
chocolate
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magnesium deficiency =?
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develops slowly
irregular heartbead
icreased blood pressure
weakness
vomiting
muscle spasms
disorientation
nausea
seizures
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who is at risk for MG deficiency?
answer

ppl who use direuitcs
lots of perspiration
long term diarrhea and vomiting
alcoholics
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function of Iron?
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hemoglobin in RBCS
myoglobin
ETC
enzyme cofactor
immune function
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what are the two types of iron?
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heme (animal-25 %)
and
non heme (plant 17%)
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what increases the absorption of iron?
answer

MEP factor
vitamin c
citric and lactic acid
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what decreases the absorption of iron
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phylates and fibers’vegetable proteins
calcium in milk
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who needs to consume more Fe?
answer

vegetarians
adolesent girls
women less than 51
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iron sources
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cook in iron pan
clams
liver
parsley
beans
rice
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what causes iron deficiency?
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most common, caused by blood loss, malaria, parasites, menstruration, stage of life
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s/s of iron deficiency?
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fatigue
weakness
headaches
apathy
pallor
poor resistances to cold temps
behavioral adhd
energy metabolism impaires
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what causes toxicity of iron?
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caused by hemochromatosis, blood transfucions, suppllements and metabolic disorders
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s/s of iron toxicity?
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tissue damage
infection
diabetes
liver cancer
heart disease
arthritis
nausea
constipation
vomit
runs
shock
confusion
increased HR
weak pulse
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function of zinc?
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promotes healthy immune system
cofactor
dna and protein synthesis
cell division
protein alcohol metabolic
cell membrane
eye function
wound healing
development of sexual maturity
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who is at risk for zinc deficiency?
answer

alcoholica
preggos
poor nutrition
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sources of zinc?
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animal products
oysters
red meat
shellfish
whole grains
legumes
nuts
greens
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deficiency of zinc = ?
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inhibits copper absorption
decreases HDL
increase heart disease
runs
cramps
nausea
vomiting
depressed immune system
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selenium sources?
answer

fish
meat eggs
milk
shell fish
whole grains
nuts
**brazil nuts**
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functio os selenium?
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defend against free radicals
regulate thyroid function
play a rolein immune function

part of a group of proteins called selenoproteins

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selenium deficency?
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muscle pain/weakness
cardiomyoapthy
keshan disease- kid heart block vessel disease
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who is at risk for selenium deficiency?
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people with gi diseases which lower absorption

and placed where selinium is low in the soil

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toxicity s/s of selenium?
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brittle hair
rashes
cirrhosis of the liver
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function of iodine?
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synthesis of thyroid hormone
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Iodide deficiency?
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enlargement of thyroid
decreased metabolic rate
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toxicity of iodide results in?
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inhibition of thyroid hormone synthesis
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sources of idiodine?
answer

chocolate milkshake
yogurt
milke
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who is at risk for iodine deficency?
answer

pregos
kids get cretinism + mental retardation
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functions of flouride?
answer

protects teeth from cavities
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deficency/.
answer

increased risk of dental caries
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toxicity?
answer

too much tap water in kids or
too much toothpaste
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what are the water soluable vitamins?
answer

* B vitamins
+ thiamin
+ riboflavin
+ niacin
+ biotin
+ pantothenic acid
+ vitamin B6
+ folate
+ vitamin B12