PS 232 Final Exam Chapter 6

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In his studies with Rhesus monkeys, Harlow found that
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infant monkeys became attached to the cloth mothers, regardless of whether these mothers provided food.
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It is said that there is no price for good health–life is priceless. Yet if hospitals are paid for costs associated with all Medicare patient costs, the bills skyrocket. If hospitals receive a fixed amount of money for each Medicare patient they treat, the numbers of patients go up but the length of stay decreases. If doctors receive a fixed amount of money per patient in their group, then hospitalization rates go down. This phenomenon is most easily explained by which basic approach to understanding individual human behavior?
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behaviorist
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When a person is faced with one of the three drive conflicts described by Dollard and Miller, the inability to satisfy these conflicts leads to
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Neurotic behavior
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__________ are credited with the creation of social learning theory.
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Dollard & Miller
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Approach-approach conflict is best described as what?
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A person is equally driven towards two equally attractive choices
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When Jones extinguished Peter’s fear of the rabbit by gradually bringing it closer and closer while keeping Peter happy and relaxed, he demonstrated
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systematic desensitization.
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Skinner asserts that feelings
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are collateral products of our genetic and environmental histories.
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Behaviorism rejects what information gathering technique?
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Introspection
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The frustration-aggression hypothesis is best illustrated by which of the following?
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You are hungry and you decide to eat some leftovers from last night; when you go to the kitchen you see that your sister left them out all night and that they are now moldy, so you yell at her.
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Skinner’s approach would suggest that many problems faced by old people are due in large part to
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both A and B
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From the behaviorist perspective, the term \”extinction\” refers to
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a \”dying out\” of a conditioned response when it is no longer paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
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The studies of child-rearing precursors of dependency and aggression in children (as studied by Sears) showed that
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parents’ reports of how much they punished the child were related to the child’s dependency and aggression.
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Skinner asserts that to address social and cultural problems, we should
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manipulate the environment, which really controls behavior.
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Who developed the concept of \”operant conditioning\”?
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Skinner
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In the domain of conditioning, generalization refers to
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A conditioned response occurring to stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus
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If you suffered from arachnophobia (extreme fear of spiders) you might seek the help of a therapist in overcoming your problem. Which of the following would be a legitimate but somewhat risky method of treatment?
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flooding
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Learning theories are similar to Freud’s approach because they
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are deterministic.
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In the dogs that he worked with, Pavlov was able to classically condition something similar to which personality dimension?
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neuroticism
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Walden Two is conceptualized as a problem-free place because
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the government uses only positive reinforcement.
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Social cognitive learning theories differ from Dollard & Miller’s social learning theory in which of the following ways?
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They emphasize the importance of the social context in personality.
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\”Pavlov’s Dog\” refers to what?
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An experiment in which a dog was conditioned to salivate at the signal that food was coming, before the food was presented.
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The quote that behaviorism \”has substituted for the erstwhile anthropomorphic view of the rat, a ratomorphic view of man\” implies that
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behaviorism replaces our humanness with simple laws derived from rat studies.
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When an individual is able to discern that a given stimulus is NOT the conditioned stimulus, and therefore does not perform the conditioned response, this is called
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discrimination.
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Which of the following is a difference between classical conditioning (as defined by Pavlov) and operant condition (as defined by Skinner)?
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Classical conditioning deals with the conditioning of existing responses to occur to new stimuli, and operant conditioning deals with shaping behavior by using consequences
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Dollard and Miller’s learning theory explains neurotic behavior in terms of
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approach-avoidance conflicts.
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Initially Bob was supposed to go to a concert tonight with his friends, but then Sheila asked him to go to a movie. He was really excited about the concert, but has had his eye on Sheila for over a year now. Bob is experiencing
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an approach-approach conflict.
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Jane was mugged walking home late from work one evening. The event scared Jane so much that she never stays late at work, always takes cabs when it is dark outside, and avoids the street on which she was mugged. This set of responses that occurred after the mugging would be best described by Dollard and Miller as
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Jane’s habit hierarchy created after the mugging in situations that mirror the original
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Social learning theory refers to what?
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The theory that explains the probability of responding to certain situation in a certain way due to past experiences and drives
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Superstitious behaviors, such as wearing a lucky ring or eating special foods prior to an important event are best explained by
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operant conditioning.
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The researcher credited with applying behaviorist principles to elicit fear in a young child, \”Little Albert,\” was
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Watson.
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Sears described personality as \”potentialities for action\” which included
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all of the above
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Of the following reinforcement schedules, which is most effective in terms of creating a behavior that is resistant to extinction?
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partial reinforcement
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According to behaviorist principles, what would be a technique useful for overcoming phobias?
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Systematic desensitization
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Although Hull believed in the importance of environmental reinforcements for learning, he
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also believed that the internal state of the organism was important.
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Skinner’s novel, Walden Two, describes
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a utopian community which operates on the principles of operant conditioning.
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Secondary or acquired drives are best explained as what?
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Acquired responses to situations similar to an original situation that induced a certain feeling
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Limits of the learning approach to understanding personality include
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all of the above
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According to Skinner, part of the reason that the science of behavior has not progressed as far as it should is due to
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all of the above
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The central idea behind the concept of operant conditioning is that
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behavior is changed by its consequences.
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Harlow’s studies of Rhesus monkeys suggested that attachment between mothers and infants is due to
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the reinforcing nature of physical contact.

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