Providing First Aid for Bone and Joint Injuries

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break in the bone
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fracture
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the end of a bone is displaced from a joint or moved out of its normal position
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dislocation
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injury to tissues surrounding a joint (involving ligaments and tendons)
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sprain
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over stretching of a muscle
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strain
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has no external wound on the skin
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closed or simple fracture
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has an open wound on the skin
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open or compound fracture
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list six signs and symptoms of a fracture.
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deformities, limited motion, pain, victim hears a snap, victim feels a grating sensation, swelling and discoloration
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treatment for fractures is directed at maintaining ___________, treating for ______, keeping the broken bone from ______, and preventing further _______.
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respirations; shock; moving; injury
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list four signs and symptoms of a dislocation.
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deformity, limited movement, swelling and discoloration, pain
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why is movement of the injured part dangerous when a dislocation has occurred?
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can lead to additional injury to nerves, blood vessels, and other tissues in the area
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list four signs and symptoms of a sprain.
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swelling, pain, impaired motion, discoloration
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list three first aid treatments for a sprain.
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application of cold, elevation of the part, elastic bandage
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why are cold applications used to treat a sprain or strain?
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to reduce swelling and pain
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why are warm applications used to treat a strain?
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to relax the muscles
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list four different types of materials that can be used for splints.
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cardboard, newspapers, pillows, boards
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list three basic principles that should be followed when splits are applied.
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-should be long enough to immobilize the joint above and below the injury -should be padded -should be tied in place
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list four points you can check to make sure that circulation is not impaired after a splint or sling has been applied.
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skin temperature (should be warm), skin color (pale or blueness indicates poor circulation), note swelling, check for pain/tingling
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what should you do if you notice signs of impaired circulation after applying a splint?
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immediately loosen the ties holding the splint

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