Programming Languages

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FORTRAN
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The oldest high-level programming language. Designed by John Backus for IBM in the late 1950s, it is still popular today, particularly for scientific applications that require extensive mathematical computations.
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COBOL
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Developed in the late 1950s and early 1960s, It is the second-oldest high-level programming language (FORTRAN is the oldest). It is particularly popular for business applications that run on large computers. It is a wordy language; programs written in it tend to be much longer than the same programs written in other languages.
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Pascal
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A high-level programming language developed by Niklaus Wirth in the late 1960s. It is best known for its affinity to structured programming techniques. The nature of the language forces programmers to design programs methodically and carefully. For this reason, it is a popular teaching language. Despite its success in academia, it has had only modest success in the business world. Part of the resistance to it by professional programmers stems from its inflexibility and lack of tools for developing large applications.
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Ada
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A high-level programming language developed in the late 1970s and early 1980s for the United States Defense Department. It was designed to be a general-purpose language for everything from business applications to rocket guidance systems. One of its principal features is that it supports real-time applications. In addition, it incorporates modular techniques that make it easier to build and maintain large systems. Since 1986, it has been the mandatory development language for most U.S. military applications. In addition, it is often the language of choice for large systems that require real-time processing, such as banking and air traffic control systems.
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BASIC
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Developed in the 1960s at Dartmouth College to introduce novices to programming. Many of its latest versions are object oriented.
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C
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Implemented in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Laboratories. It initially became widely known as the UNIX operating system’s development language. Today, most of the code for general-purpose operating systems is written in it or C++.
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C++
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An extension of C, it was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup in the early 1980s at Bell Laboratories. It provides a number of features that “spruce up” the C language, but more important, it provides capabilities for object-oriented programming.
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Objective C
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an object-oriented language based on C. It was developed in the early 1980s and later acquired by Next, which in turn was acquired by Apple. It has become the key programming language for the Mac OS X operating system and all iOS-powered devices (such as iPods, iPhones and iPads).
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Visual Basic
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Microsoft’s ____ ____ language was introduced in the early 1990s to simplify the development of Microsoft Windows applications. Its latest versions support object-oriented programming.
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C#
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Microsoft’s 3 primary object-oriented languages are Visual Basic, Visual C++ (based on C++) and Visual __(based on C++ and Java, and developed for intergrating the Internet and the web into computer applications.
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PHP
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An open source server-side scripting language designed for Web development to produce dynamic Web pages. It is one of the first developed server-side scripting languages to be embedded into an HTML source document rather than calling an external file to process data. The code is interpreted by a Web server with a ___ processor module which generates the resulting Web page.
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Python
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An object-oriented scripting language, released publicly in 1991 by Guido van Rossum and draws heavily from Modula-3. It is extensible because it can be extended through classes and programming interfaces. It’s also a general-purpose, high-level programming language whose design philosophy emphasizes code readability.
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Javascript
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It is the most widely used scripting language and used primarily to add programmability to web pages.
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Ruby
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Created in the mid-1990’s by Yukihiro Matsumoto, it is an open-source, object oriented scripting language that’s similar to Python.
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Ruby on Rails
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It’s the combination of the scripting language Ruby with the Rails web application framework developed by 37Signals.
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Scala (Scalable Language)
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Designed by Martin Odersky and released in 2003, it uses both the object-oriented and functional programming paradigms and is designed to integrate with Java.
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perl
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A high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming language.developed by Larry Wall in 1987 as a general-purpose Unix scripting language to make report processing easier. Since then, it has undergone many changes and revisions. The latest major stable revision is 5.16, released in May 2012. ____ 6 is a complete redesign of the language, announced in 2000 and still under active development as of 2012.
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Java
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A general-purpose, concurrent, class-based, object-oriented computer programming language that is specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible. It is intended to let application developers “write once, run anywhere” (WORA), meaning that code that runs on one platform does not need to be recompiled to run on another.originally developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems (which has since merged into Oracle Corporation) and released in 1995.
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Postscript
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A dynamically typed concatenative programming language created by John Warnock and Charles Geschke in 1982. It is best known for its use as a page description language in the electronic and desktop publishing areas.
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VBScript
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An Active Scripting language developed by Microsoft that is modeled on Visual Basic. It is designed as a “lightweight” language with a fast interpreter for use in a wide variety of Microsoft environments. It uses the Component Object Model to access elements of the environment within which it is running.

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