Prentice Hall World History Chapter 17

Flashcard maker : Claire Forth
Censorship
Restriction on access to ideas and information
Federal republic
Government in which power is divided between the national or federal government and the states
Lassiez faire
Policy allowing business to operate with little or no government interference
Enlightened despot
Absolute ruler who used his or hep power to bring about political and social change
Natural law
Rules of conduct discoverable by reaso
Natural right
Right that belongs to all humans from birth such as life, liberty, and property
Philosophe
French for \”philosopher\”; French thinker who desired to reform in society during the enlightenment
Popular sovereignty
Basic principle of the American system of government which asserts that the people are the source of any and all governmental power, and government can exist only with the consent of the governed
Social contract
An agreement by which people gave up their freedom to a powerful government in order to avoid chaos
Stamp act
Law passed in 1765 by the British Parliament that imposed taxes on items such as newspapers and pamphlets in the American colonies; repealed in 1766
Thomas Hobbes
People are naturally cruel. If not strictly controlled they would fight one another. People enter into. Social contract. Absolute monarchy best government.
John Locke
People are reasonable. People have certain natural rights. Best governments protect natural rights. Government has responsibility people, if decisions are unreasonable, people are able to overthrow.
Montesquieu
Studied governments from Europe. Best way to protect liberty was to divide power among 3 branches of government. Each branch should check on each other.
Voltaire
Used his works to call out corrupt officials and idle aristocrats. Offended Catholic Church and French Government so he was imprisoned and put into exile.
Diderot
Wrote Encyclopedia that compiled works of philosophes.
Encyclopedia
4,000 printed between 1751 and 1789. Encyclopedia helped spread Enlightenment ideas throughout Europe and Across Atlantic Ocean to the Americas.
Rousseau
Believed people were good and that society corrupted them. Society placed too many limitations on people’s behavior. Controls necessary but not too much. Good of the community as a whole should be put over the individuals will.
Adam Smith
Free market should be allowed to regulate business activity. Demand for goods or services suppliers would seek to meet demand on order to gain profits. Support lassiez faire, but government had a duty to protect society, administer justice, and provide public works
Salons
Informal social gatherings at which writers,artists, and philosophes and others exchanged ideas
Baroque
Huge colorful and full of excitement
Rococo
Moved away from religion and was lighter more elegant than baroque
Frederick the Great
Enlightened Despot of Prussia. Allow free press, religious tolerance,
Catherine the Great
Enlightened Despot of Russia. Abolish torture, granted nobles a charter of rights
Joseph II
Enlightened Despot of Austria. Religious tolerance, free press, abolish serfdom
George III
60 year reign of England starting in 1760. Passed Stamp Act
George Washington
Leader of the Colonist Army. very admirable. First president.
Thomas Jefferson
Yorktown, Virginia
Where Britain surrendered to America after blocking of Chesapeake Bay by the French
Treaty of Paris
Britain recognized American independence
James Madison
Benjamin Franklin

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member