Pre- AP World History Midterm Exam

Flashcard maker : Viola Marenco
How did physical geography influence the lives of early humans?
Early humans were hunters & gatherers whose survival depended on the availability of plants & animals
Where did the earliest humans originate?
The earliest humans originated in east Africa. They migrated to Europe, Asia, Australia, & the America’s
How did early humans attempt to control their environment?
They made simple stone tools & learned to control fire
In hunting-gathering societies, men were hunter while woman were typically? what were some other characteristics of hunter-gatherer societies?
Women were typically gatherers. Hunter-gatherer societies were nomadic, moving from place to place in search of food.
What are the differences between the Paleolithic and Neolithic Era’s?
Paleolithic: old stone age. Simple things like, tools, animals, clothing, etc. Lived in small nomadic clans and a spoken language
Neolithic: New stone age. developed agriculture, advanced tools, woven clothing, made pottery, lived in permanent settlements
How did the beginning of agriculture and the domestication of animals promote the rise of settled communities?
People could grow their own food: did not have to wander anymore searching for food.
Could settle in one place: surplus(could grow more than needed)
What are two types of scientists that study pre-ap history and early man?
Anthropologists & Archaeologists
Anthropologists study culture and archaeologists primarily study what?
Artifacts left behind by early man & ancient civilizations
How does archaeology provide knowledge of early human life and its change?
Archaeologists locate & analyze human remains settlements, fossils, artifacts. They apply scientific test to approximate the age of the artifact
What are the 5 characteristics of civilization?
Advanced citites, Advanced technology, Specialized workers, Complex institutions, Record Keeping
Why did ancient civilization develop in river valleys?
River valleys offered rich soil & irrigation, water for agriculture & they tended to be in locations easily protected from invasions by nomadic people
Where did the first river valley civilization appear? What rivers sustained those civilizations?
Mesopotamia- Tigris & Euphrates Egypt- Nile China- Huange He & Yangtze
India- Indus & Ganges
What were the social, political, and economic characteristics of early civilizations?
Social- Hereditary rulers: dynasties of kings, pharaohs. Rigid class system where slavery is accepted
Political- world first states (city-states, kingdoms, empires) centralized government often based on religious, authority, written law codes ( ten commandments, Hammurabi’s code)
What religious traditions developed in ancient civilizations?
Polytheism was practiced by most early civilizations.
Monotheism was practiced by the Hebrews
The origins of Judaism can be traced to whom?
Abraham
Where did Moses receive the Ten Commandments?
Mt. Sinai
The 10 Commandments became the basis for what?
Written law codes, moral/ethical behavior & religious conduct of the people
Most people in the ancient Middle East were _____ while the Hebrews were the first ______.
Polytheistic…. Monotheistic people
What were the essentials beliefs of Judaism?
Belief in one god (monotheistic), Torah (contains written records & beliefs of the Jews) Ten Commandments (morals & religious conduct)
What is a covenant? Where did the Jews settle and how did this relate to the first government?
A contract or agreement between god and the Hebrews people. The Jews settle in Canaan. God promised to protect Abraham and his descendants if they obeyed him.
The most sacred writings of the Jewish religion are the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, known as the?
Torah
How did Judaism influence western civilizations?
Spread of Judaism- Exile & diaspora. First Monotheistic people, became the foundation for other monotheistic (Christianity & Islam)
Torah- First five books of the Bible. Ten Commandments produce people with guidance on how to act morally and religiously
What forms of language writing existed in early civilizations?
Pictograms: earliest written symbols
Egypt: Hieroglyphics
Sumer: cuneiform
Phoenicians: alphabet
what eastern Mediterranean civilizations created the first phonetic alphabet?
Phoenicians
The Rosetta Stone provided for the translation of _______ using ancient Greek.
Egyptian Hieroglyphics
What do the pyramids show about the Old Kingdom dynasties of Egypt?
Pyramids were tombs for the Egyptian pharaohs who were very powerful, considered gods on earth
A series of rulers that come from a single family is called what?
Dynasty
Located between the Tigris and Euphrates, Mesopotamia’s name means what?
Land between two rivers.
Who formed the 1st empire?
Sargon of Akkad. By conquering northern & southern Mesopotamia
What Mesopotamia ruler created a uniform code of laws?
Hammurabi
Why were Egyptian farmers more fortunate than the farmers of Mesopotamia?
Predictable flooding of the Nile at regular intervals while the Tigris & Euphrates flooded unpredictably
Which early civilization is noted for carefully planned cities and sophisticated plumbing?
Indus Valley Civil.
Which early civilizations created a language that anthropologists have NOT been able to translate?
Indus Valley
How do we know that the people of the Indus Valley traded with the Sumerians?
Artifacts from the Indus Valley civilization have been founded in Sumer & artifacts from Mesopotamia have been found in the Indus Valley
Why were physical geography and location importance to the development of Indian Civilization?
Physical barriers, such as the Himalayas. The Hindu kush and the Indian Ocean invasion difficult. The Indus & Ganges were the important rivers in the Indian subcontinent.
What made the subcontinent of India resistant to invasion?
Physical/ Natural barriers
Who were the first powerful monarch to practice Buddhism and use missionaries to spread the religion in India and Asia?
Ashoka
What nomadic people conquered and settled much of ancient India?
Aryans
What impact did the Aryans have on India?
Migration, assertion of dominance in India. Caste system which influenced all social interactions and choices of occupations
Why was the caste system central to Indian Culture?
Become part of Hindu religion, Influenced social interactions & choice of occupations
What are the beliefs of the Hindu religion?
-believe in many forms of one god (polytheistic)
-samsara (reincarnation based on karma)
-vedas & Upanishads as sacred text
-moksha (form of enlightment)
How did Hinduism influence Indian Society and culture?
Developed slowly overtime as blending of Aryan & indus valley culture (religious, beliefs, caste system, etc.)
The Hindu belief in the cycle of life, death, and rebirth is known as what?
samsara (being born again)
The founder of Buddhism was _______. He taught that you reach Enlightenment by _____________.
Siddhartha & following the 8 fold path
What are the beliefs of Buddhism?
Founder: Siddhartha (known as Buddha)
4 noble truths, 8 fold paths, no gods
How did Buddhism spread?
Ashoka’s missionaries spread Buddhism from India to china & other parts of Asia
what were the accomplishments/ contributions of the Mauryan & Gupta empires?
Mauryan Empire- Ashoka, continued political unification of much to India, spread of Buddhism. Free hospitals
the use of Oracle existed in:
Ancient China
The name of the Chinese river that created devastating floods, sometimes called \”the great sorrow\” is?
Huange He (Yellow River)
How did china’s rulers receive the right to rule?
Mandate of Heaven
Why was the Great Wall of China Built?
Migratory invaders raided Chinese settlements from the north. Quin Shi Huang Di built the Great Wall as a line of defense against invasions
Why were Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism important in the formation of Chinese culture?
Confucianism : respect for elders, code of politeness
Daoism: simple life & inner peace. Harmony with nature. Ying and Yang opposite forces.
Legalism: strict laws & harsh punishments. Law is the supreme authority
What philosophy did Qin Shi Huang Di used to create peace, order, and stability in ancient China?
Legalism
The teaching of Confucius are found in?
A book called analects
Filial piety refers to?
Respect your elders
How did the Assyrians and Persians govern their empire?
Assyrians were cruel, brutal, & harsh. Killed, exiled and enslaved people who rebelled.
Persians used tolerance of conquered people. They constructed a road system. Practiced Zoroastrianism
Which civilization does the prophet Zoroaster belong to and what beliefs were similar to later concepts in Christianity and Islam?
Persia. Belief in apposing forces ( good vs evil) idea of an evil spirit, concept of heaven & hell. Concept of a final judgement at the end of ones life
The Persians built roads to help unite their vast empire. The longest of these roads, stretching for over 1,600 miles was known as __________.
Royal Road
Persians provinces were administered by local governors known as?
satraps
To restore social order, harmony and good government, Confucius taught?
filial piety, code of politeness, proper behavior, repect & honor in the 5 basic relationship.
1) ruler-subject 2) father-son 3) husband-wife 4) older siblings-younger siblings 5) friend-friend
The civil services system, silk porcelain, and originated in _____ while paper made of papyrus was first made in _______.
China & egypt

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