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Praxis II: 0042 American Literature

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Characteristics Of Native-American Liturature
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Reverance for and awe of nature, and the interconnectedness of the elements in the life cycle.
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Themes of Native-American Literature
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The hardiness of the native body and soul, remorse for the destruction of the native way of life, the genocide of many tribes by the encroaching settlement and Manifest Destiny policies of the U.S. government.
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Colonial period: Stylistically
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neoclassical, emphasizing order, balance, clarity, and reason.
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Why were colonists’ writing and speaking “British”
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because they had been schooled in England, even though their thinking became entirely American
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William Bradord’s excerpts from “the Mayflower Compact relate:
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the hardships of crossing the Atlantic, the misery and suffering of the first winter, the approaches of the American Indians, the decimation of the colonists’ ranks, and the establishment of the Bay colony of Massachusetts.
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Anne Bradstreet’s poetrey describes:
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colonial New England life.
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A History of the Dividing Line was written by:
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William Byrd
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A History of the Dividing Line was about:
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Byrd’s trek into the Dismal Swamp separating the carolinian territories from Virginia and Maryland.
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Southern Cavaliers
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came to the New World with King George’s blessing. They were given grants to pursue business ventures. ex: W. Byrd
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The Revolutionary Period
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Primarily nonfiction. Essay, Pamphlet, Speech, Famous Document, and Epistle.
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Thomas Paine
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wrote Common Sense: a pamphlet that spoke to the American patriots’ common sense in dealing with issues in the cause of freedom.
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Bejamin Franklin’s contributions to Revolutionary literature.
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essays from Poor Richard’s Almanac and satires such as “How to Reduce a Great Empire to a Small one” and “A Letter to Madame Gout.”
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great orations of the revolutionary period
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Pactrick Henry’s “Speech to the Virginia House of Burgesses” (‘Give me liberty or give me death’) and George Washington’s “Farewell to the Army of the Patomac”
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Declaration of Independence
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this was the brainchild predominantly of Thomas Jefferson (edited by Ben Franklin) and is a prime example of neoclassical writing–balanced, well crafted, and focused.
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Romantic Period
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composed of Early American folk tales and the emergence of a distinctly American style of writing.
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What do Washingon Irvin’s characters (Ichabod Crane and Rip Van Winkle) represent?
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uniquely American folklore devoid of English influences. Indelibly marked by their environment and the superstitions of the New Englander.
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James Fenimore Cooper
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his early writings (including Leatherstocking Tales) provide readers a window into the uniquely American world through stirring accounts of drums along the Mohawk Trail, the French and Indian Wars, the futile British defense of Fort William Henry, and the brutalities of this period.
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Some memorable characters by James Fenimore Cooper
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Natty Bumppo, Chingachgook, Uncas, and Magua. they reflect the American spirit in thought and action.
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Fireside Poets
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James Russell, Lowell, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, and John Greenleaf Wittier.
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The Courtin
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by Lowell. Uses Yankee dialect to tell a story
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Longfellow
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Hiawatha, The Courtship of Miles Standish, and Evageline. told of adversity, sorrow, and ultimate happiness–uniquely American Fashion.
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Snowbound
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by whittier. Relates the story of a captive family isolated by a blizzard and stresses family closeness.
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Nathaniel Hawthore and Herman Melville
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Preeminent early American novelists. Write on subjects definitely regional, specific, and American, yet sharing insights about human foibles, fears, loves, doubts and triumphs.
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The Scarlet Letter
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Nathanial Hawthorne’s Masterpiece
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The House of Seven Gables
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Nathanial Hawthorne: deals with kept secrets, loneliness, societal pariahs, and the triumph of love over horrible wrongs.
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cricket on the harth
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one of Hawthorne’s children’s stories
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Dr. Heidegger’s Experiment, The Devil and Tom Walker, & Rapuccini’s Daughter
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Dark, brooding, adult short stories by Hawthorne
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Moby Dick
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Herman Melville. Follows crazed Captain Ahab on his odyssey to conquer the great white whale that has outwitted him and his whaling crews time and again. Melville paints in painstaking detail and with knowledge the harsh life of a whaler out of New Bedford.
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Billy Budd
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Melville. Christ-like sacrifice to the black-and-white maritime laws on the high seas.
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Edgar Allan Poe
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distinctly america version of romanticism with his 16 syllable lines in The Raven, the classical To Helen, and his Gothic Annabelle Lee. The origional horror short story writer.
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EAP horror
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The Telltale Heart, The Cask of Amontillado, The Fall of the House of Usher, The Masque of the Red Death
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EAP begins the detective story genre with:
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Murders in the Rue Morgue
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Transcendentalism authors
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Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau. offshoots of American Romanticism.
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Emerson
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wrote about the transcending the complexities of life
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Thoreau
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wanted to get to the “marrow of life” immersed himself in nature. wrote passionately regarding his objections to the interference of government in the life of the individual.
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Emerson’s Essays and War poetry
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elegantly crafted and still validate several important universal truths.
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Emerson most remembered for:
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his address to Thoreau’s Harvard graduating class The American Scholar–defined the qualities of hard work and intillectual spirit required of Americans in their growing nation.
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Walt Whitman
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classified by poignant poetry and ushered in the Civil War period. paid homage to all who suffered from the ripple effects of war and presidential assasination.
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Come Up from the Fields, Father
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Walt Whitman. about a Civil War soldier’s death and his family’s reaction.
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When Lilacs Last in the Courtyard Bloom’d
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Walt Whitman. about the effects of Lincoln’s death on the poet and nation.
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Leaves of Grass
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Walt Whitman. gave America its first truly unique poetry form.
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Emily Dickinson
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all but three of her poems were never published in her lifetime. her themes: introspection and attention to nature’s details and wonders.
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Mark Twain
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uniue blend of tall tale and fable.
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The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County, and The Man who Stole Hadleyburg
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Mark Twain. epitomes of short story writing.
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The Adventures of Huckelberry Finn.
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bold. oft banned. examined many taboo subjects. written partly in dialect and southern vernacular. some say: greatest american novel.
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Realistic period
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the late nineteenth centurey saw a reaction against the tendency of Romantic writers to look at the world through rose-colored glasses. writers like Frank Norris (the pit) and Upton Sinclair (the Jungle) used their novels to decry deporable working contitions in slaughterhouses and wheat mills.
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realistic writers
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wrote of common, ordinary people and events using realistic detail to reveal the harsh realities of life. they broached taboos by creating protagonists whose environments often destroyed them.
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romantic writers
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created protagonists whose indomitable wills helped them rise above adversity.
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twentieth-century american writing is divided into what 3 catagories?
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drama, fiction, and poetry.
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American Drama: Eugene O’Neill
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Long Day’s Journey into Night, Mourning Becomes Electra, and Desire Under the Elms
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American Drama: Arthur Miller
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The Crucible, All My Sons, and Death of a Salesman
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American Drama: Tennessee Williams
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Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, The Glass Menagerie and A Streetcar Named Desire
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American Drama: Edward Albee
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Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?, Three Tall Women, and A Delicate Balance
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The Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge
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Abrose Bierce. Relates the unfortunate hanging of a Confederate soldier.
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naturalists
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many writers believed that man was subject to a fate over which he had no control. the short stories “outcasts of Poker Flat” (Bret Harte) “To Build a Fire” (Jack London).
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American Fiction: Eudora Welty
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The Optomists Daughter
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American Fiction: John Updike
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Rabbit Run, Rabbit Redux
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American Fiction: Sinclair Lewis
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Babbit and Elmer Gantry
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American Fiction: F. Scott Fitzgerald
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Great Gatsby, Tender is the Night
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American Fiction: Ernest Hemingway
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Farewell to Arms, For Whom the Bell Tolls
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American Fiction: William Faulkner
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The Sound and the Fury, and Absolom, Absolom!
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Bernard Malamud
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The Fixer and The Natural
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American Poetry
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Multifacited. Authors include: Edna St. Vincent Millay, Marianne Moore, Richard Wilbur, Langston Hughes, Maya Angelou, Rita Dove and Robert Frost.
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Robert Frost
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one of the most loved twentieth-century American poets. His New England motifs of snowy evenings, birches, apple picking, stone wall mending, hired hands, and nature relate universal truths through exquisite diction, polysyllabic words and rare allusions to either mythology or the Bible.