Practice test 1

While treating a 25 year-old patient with paraplegia at the T3 level, you smell alcohol on his breath. He is having difficulty accomplishing tasks that were previously performed without assistance. In this situation your best course of action would be to:

A. document the findings and immediately inform the supervising physical therapist.
B. confront the patient and ask him if he has been drinking.
C. immediately inform the nurse in charge.
D. document and report your suspicions of alcoholism to the rehabilitation team at the weekly meeting.

Correct Answer: A
document the findings and immediately inform the supervising physical therapist.
A patient who is terminally ill with cancer begins to cry, during her therapy session. The best approach would be to:

A. ask the patient questions while continuing to administer therapy.
B. ignore the tears and focus on therapy in a compassionate manner.
C. encourage denial to enable her to better cope with the challenges that lay ahead.
D. take time to allow the patient to express her feelings.

Correct Answer: D
take time to allow the patient to express her feelings.
A 28 year-old patient with a right transtibial amputation and diabetes has just completed ambulating 100 feet with a walker. The patient now complains of dizziness, shaking, fatigue and weakness. He also stated that he did not eat breakfast due to lack of appetite. The most appropriate intervention would be to:

A. have him take his insulin.
B. give him orange juice.
C. rest then continue therapy.
D. give him a glass of water.

Correct Answer: B
give him orange juice.
You are working with a 59 year-old female patient in Phase II of the cardiac rehabilitation program. She is being monitored for vital signs as well as oxygen saturation levels. To monitor the oxygen saturation levels use:

A. a blood pressure cuff.
B. an anemometer.
C. a pulse oximeter.
D. a stethoscope.

Correct Answer: C
a pulse oximeter.
You check the vital signs of a 36 year-old patient, with a history of cardiac disease. Heart rate is steady at 60 beats per minute; respiratory rate is 8 breaths per minute; blood pressure is 120/70 mmHg and the oral temperature is 98.6ºF. The vital sign determination that is of most concern would be:

A. respiratory rate
B. blood pressure.
C. temperature.
D. heart rate.

Correct Answer: A
respiratory rate
The physician has ordered a spiral ankle-foot orthosis for a patient you are treating. A spiral ankle foot orthosis is utilized primarily for:

A. limiting dorsiflexion.
B. limiting plantarflexion.
C. increasing plantarflexion.
D. medial/lateral instability of the ankle.

Correct Answer: D
medial/lateral instability of the ankle.
Prior to beginning prosthetic training with a patient you notice a newly developed stage I pressure sore on the distal aspect of the residual limb. The appropriate intervention for this patient would be to:

A. don the prosthesis and begin weightbearing activities.
B perform strengthening and range of motion exercises.
C. not treat the patient and contact the prosthetist.
D. not treat the patient and contact the PT.

Correct Answer: B
perform strengthening and range of motion exercises.
A patient afflicted with a right CVA will most likely exhibit:

A. negative, self-deprecating comments and frequent depression.
B. slow, cautious behaviors.
C poor judgment with decreased safety awareness.
D. hesitancy, requiring more feedback and support.

Correct Answer: C
poor judgment with decreased safety awareness.
A primary outcome of phase II cardiac rehabilitation would include:

A. improvement in the patient’s ability to perform activities of daily living.
B. achievement of exercises to the target heart rate.
C. the ability to perform activities of at least 12 METS.
D. the ability of the patient to self-monitor the exercise response.

Correct Answer: A
improvement in the patient’s ability to perform activities of daily living.
You are working with a 2 year-old girl with cerebral palsy and left hemiplegia. She sits on the floor independently with weight primarily on the right side. She scoots in a sitting position on the floor but is unable to maintain quadruped or creep on her hands and knees. She pulls to stand on the couch but cannot walk. An established physical therapy 3 month functional goal should include the ability to:

A. independently maintain quadruped position for 2 minutes.
B. independently creep using a reciprocal pattern.
C. sit on the floor symmetrically.
D. take a few steps with one hand held.

Correct Answer: D
take a few steps with one hand held.
The PT has asked you to test a patient’s equilibrium reactions. One way you would perform this test is by:

A. asking the patient bring their knee to their chest, while the PTA applies manual resistance in the sitting position.
B. having the patient sit unsupported while reaching forward and observing the patient’s recovery.
C. asking the patient to tap their toe as fast as possible.
D. asking the patient to bring their finger from their nose to the PTA’s finger.

Correct Answer: B
having the patient sit unsupported while reaching forward and observing the patient’s recovery.
An infant with delayed development of her fine motor skills would most likely develop with the following progression:

A. voluntary release first, then transfers from hand to hand, followed by reflexive grasp, and finally voluntary grasp.
B. voluntary grasp first, then reflexive grasp, followed by voluntary release, and finally transfers from hand to hand.
C. reflexive grasp first, then voluntary grasp, followed by voluntary release, and finally transfers from hand to hand.
D. reflexive grasp first, then voluntary release, followed by voluntary grasp, and finally transfers from hand to hand.

Correct Answer: C
reflexive grasp first, then voluntary grasp, followed by voluntary release, and finally transfers from hand to hand.
A 42 year-old man with Hepatitis B has a bleeding skin tear on his right calf. To prevent transmission of the disease, the PTA should:

A. wear disposable gloves.
B. use water to wipe the blood.
C. cancel the treatment session.
D. wash both hands before the treatment only.

Correct Answer: A
wear disposable gloves
Symptoms including difficulty absorbing food into the digestive system, foul smelling bowel movements, chronic cough and a production of viscous secretions would be indicative of:

A. emphysema.
B. asthma.
C. bacterial pneumonia.
D. cystic fibrosis.

Correct Answer: D
cystic fibrosis.
You are treating a patient on the tilt table secondary to orthostatic hypotension. The patient has been gradually raised from supine to 60º and suddenly their blood pressure begins to decrease. The most appropriate intervention would be to:

A. immediately lower the tilt table back to 0º, and call the PT for assistance.
B. gradually lower the tilt table down in 5-10º increments.
C. immediately call a medical emergency, but maintain 60º of upright posture.
D. immediately lower the tilt table back to 45º and stay at this level for the remainder of the session.

Correct Answer: B
gradually lower the tilt table down in 5-10º increments.
An outpatient has been delegated to you from your supervising PT. The patient has a diagnosis of right shoulder adhesive capsulitis with accessory motion dysfunction and noted loss of proper scapulohumeral rhythm. The best intervention to achieve proper scapulohumeral rhythm of the shoulder complex would be to:

A. encourage the least amount of range of motion possible.
B. increase the shear and tensile forces on the glenohumeral joint.
C. move the proximal attachments to maintain appropriate length-strength relationships.
D. promote normal internal and external rotation of the humerus.

Correct Answer: C
move the proximal attachments to maintain appropriate length-strength relationships.
A patient has a full-thickness burn. The patient has developed a keloid scar. The characteristics of this type of scar are:

A. raised red areas within the affected area extending into the surrounding tissues.
B. smooth red areas within the burn area extending into the surrounding tissues.
C. raised red areas within the affected area extending into the surrounding tissues.
D. raised red areas contained within the affected area.

Correct Answer: A
raised red areas within the affected area extending into the surrounding tissues.
You come upon an unresponsive adult on the floor of his room. After properly positioning him, you open the airway and attempt two slow breaths. The air does not go in. It would be best to:

A. perform the Heimlich maneuver.
B. have someone else should perform the maneuver.
C. do nothing as the person has expired.
D. re-tilt the head and give breaths.

Correct Answer: D
re-tilt the head and give breaths.
Your patient arrives for therapy and complains of itching and red blotches on his arms and abdomen. He informs you that he just started a new antibiotic last night. You inspect the areas and notice red lesions. You inform the PT that you suspect the patient has:

A. decubitus ulcers.
B. urticaria.
C. blisters.
D. xeroderma.

Correct Answer: B
urticaria.
You are working in an outpatient clinic. You have been assigned to conduct a group exercise program with patients in Phase III of their cardiac rehabilitation program. The age range is from 48-92 years. For this phase of rehabilitation the most appropriate exercise would be:

A. walking on a treadmill at 2 mph.
B. running on a treadmill at 5 mph.
C. resistance exercises in sitting using under 15 pounds.
D. biking on a stationary bicycle at 10 mph.

Correct Answer: C
resistance exercises in sitting using under 15 pounds.
A woman in her third trimester of pregnancy needs prenatal exercises. In the hook lying position you noticed a one-finger gap near the umbilicus when she attempted a partial sit up. You immediately stop the exercise and modify the exercise due to the possibility of:

A. diastasis recti.
B. low back pain.
C. varicose veins.
D. preeclampsia.

Correct Answer: A
diastasis recti
After reading your patient’s medical history, you discovered she has arterial insufficiency. Participation in therapy may be limited by:

A. increased pedal pulses.
B. peripheral neuropathy.
C. cool skin.
D. signs of intermittent claudication.

Correct Answer: D
signs of intermittent claudication.
To decrease the progression of her spinal curve an eleven year-old girl with scoliosis has been fitted with a 3-point support in her wheelchair. The three points of support stabilize:

A. both sides of the pelvis and the upper trunk on the convex side of the curve.
B. the pelvis and the upper ribcage on the concave side of the curve, and the apex of the curve on the convex side.
C. the shoulder, pelvis, and knee, all on the convex side of the curve.
D. the head, pelvis and ribcage.

Correct Answer: B
the pelvis and the upper ribcage on the concave side of the curve, and the apex of the curve on the convex side.
Passive stretching exercises are not recommended for a child with:

A. cerebral palsy.
B. Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy.
C. osteogenesis imperfecta.
D. spina bifida.

Correct Answer: C
osteogenesis imperfecta.
Your patient returns for therapy two days after you performed cervical traction for the first time. The patient is complaining of increased pain. The established plan of care calls for traction, therapeutic exercise, education regarding proper body mechanics and modalities to decrease pain. This therapy session should focus on:

A. modalities to decrease the pain, followed by consultation with the physical therapist before the next session.
B. therapeutic exercises to strengthen the cervical musculature, followed by consultation with the physical therapist before the next session.
C. educating the patient about correct body mechanics with all ADL’s, followed by consultation with the physical therapist before the next session.
D. cervical traction, but with decreased tension or pull, followed by consultation with the physical therapist before the next session.

Correct Answer: A
modalities to decrease the pain, followed by consultation with the physical therapist before the next session.
The physical therapist has asked you to measure a patient for a manual wheelchair. The patient’s measurements are 20ý from hip to hip and 18ý from buttocks to the back of the knees. The most appropriate size wheelchair would be:

A. standard adult.
B. narrow adult.
C. slim adult.
D. extra wide adult.

Correct Answer: D
extra wide adult.
A patient is attending outpatient physical therapy for a right rotator cuff strain which occurred while working. The patient has complaints of soreness in the right arm when lifting overhead and feels that he has no strength. To perform his job effectively, he must manipulate machine parts and frequently lift 20 pound objects. The physician has ordered physical therapy to begin with isometric exercises to strengthen the rotator cuff muscles. The advantage of isometric exercises in this case would include:

A. a low risk of joint irritation.
B. greater work would be performed.
C. increased muscle action to increase swelling and decrease circulation.
D. strengthening would be limited to the joint position of the exercise.

Correct Answer: A
a low risk of joint irritation
A physical therapist assistant is allowed to provide all of the following interventions with the exception of:

A. leading a group in cardiac rehabilitation after the physical therapist has established the treatment protocol.
B. sharp debridement after the physical therapist has established the treatment protocol.
C. stair training with a patient after the physical therapist has established the treatment protocol.
D. percussion and shaking to a patient in the intensive care unit after the physical therapist has established the treatment protocol.

Correct Answer: B
sharp debridement after the physical therapist has established the treatment protocol.
You have just been transferred to the burn unit. You are asked to review the Adult Rule of Nines. The rule divides the body into:

A. 9 treatment sections.
B. 9 parts of 11%.
C. 11 parts of 9%
D. 11 treatment sections.

Correct Answer: C
11 parts of 9%
A 22 year-old college student is recovering from fourth degree burns to the upper extremities. The application of range of motion activities is predominantly utilized to:

A. prevent fluid loss.
B. stimulate muscle re-growth.
C. promote dermis repair.
D. prevent contractures.

Correct Answer: D
prevent contractures.
A 10 year-old girl was involved in an automobile accident. When she woke up from her coma after three weeks, she demonstrated increased tone in her right extremities that made it difficult for her to walk. The most likely reason for the increase in muscle tone is the:

A. complete L4-L5 lumbar lesion.
B. traumatic brain injury.
C. orthopedic injuries from the accident that prevent her from walking normally
D. stroke caused by the trauma of being hospitalized.

Correct Answer: B
traumatic brain injury.
An eight year-old boy with cerebral palsy has a strong asymmetrical tonic neck reflex (ATNR) when his head is turned to the right side. Because of the ATNR influence, the activity that he will have the most difficulty with would be:

A. brushing his teeth while sitting in his wheelchair.
B. bringing a spoon to his mouth with his right hand when his head is facing forward.
C. extending both arms into his T-shirt that is being held for him to his right side.
D. activating a head switch placed on the right side of his wheelchair head support which requires neck rotation and extension.

Correct Answer: C
extending both arms into his T-shirt that is being held for him to his right side.
Assessment of a patient’s breathing patterns occurs in a number of ways. The amount of air that can be forcefully expelled following a normal expiration is assessed with measuring the patient’s:

A. expiratory reserve volume.
B. forced vital capacity.
C. total lung capacity.
D. FEV1

Correct Answer: A
expiratory reserve volume.
A young boy has very high muscle tone throughout his trunk and extremities. The patient has persistence of the tonic labyrinthine reflex; and has great difficulty with bed mobility. The position that would minimize the TLR influence would be:

A. prone with knees flexed.
B. side lying.
C. supine.
D. prone.

Correct Answer: B
side lying.
A 45 year-old patient has Guillain-Barré syndrome. Given this new diagnosis, the patient will present with:

A. asymmetrical weakness with hyperreflexia.
B. sensory loss with minor loss of function.
C. symmetrical distribution of weakness, progressing from lower extremities to upper extremities.
D. asymmetrical distribution of weakness, progressing from the upper extremities to the lower extremities.

Correct Answer: C
symmetrical distribution of weakness, progressing from lower extremities to upper extremities.
A child is diagnosed with spina bifida with a L3-4 lesion. The clinical presentation would include:

A. intact lower extremity sensation.
B. intact bowel and bladder control.
C. complete inability to hip hike.
D. active hip flexion.

Correct Answer: D
active hip flexion
Medications used in respiratory diseases can be very helpful at times, and even lifesaving. The medication used to decrease spasms of the involuntary muscles of respiration and decrease secretions is/are:

A. beta-blockers.
B. nitroglycerin.
C. corticosteroids.
D. atropine.

Correct Answer: D
atropine.
While working with a patient with Down syndrome you have been asked by the physical therapist to provide activities to promote increased muscle tone. An appropriate activity would be to:

A. perform slow, rhythmic movements while singing a melodic tune.
B. bounce the child on your lap while singing a lively tune.
C. perform gentle passive range of motion.
D. assist the child to perform facilitated somersaults to stimulate muscle tone.

Correct Answer: B
bounce the child on your lap while singing a lively tune.
Protective extension backwards will most likely be exhibited by an infant that is:

A. nine to ten months-old.
B. five to six months-old.
C. seven to eight months-old.
D. three to four months-old.

Correct Answer: A
nine to ten months-old
A patient you are treating is a 34 year-old male who was a weight lifter, by profession. He lost a lower extremity in a motorcycle accident two weeks ago, and has since developed an open area on his residual limb. He is anxious to begin weightbearing on his residual limb and would like the prosthetist to measure and fit him for his prosthesis. The most appropriate response is to:

A. explain to the patient that the prosthetist is too busy at the moment and cannot measure him at that time.
B. explain to the patient that he is not strong enough to use his arms to help with use of the crutches during the weightbearing process so soon after his accident.
C. explain that the wound on his residual limb needs to heal and swelling needs to minimize before his prosthesis can be measured.
D. explain that the physician will address that issue and the patient can ask him when he sees him at his next visit.

Correct Answer: C
explain that the wound on his residual limb needs to heal and swelling needs to minimize before his prosthesis can be measured.
The PT has finished evaluating a patient who had a CVA two days ago. He is paralyzed on the right side, is experiencing sensory loss of the face, arm and leg, homonymous hemianopsia and loss of gaze to the opposite side. The artery most likely involved would be the:

A. middle cerebral artery.
B. posterior cerebral artery.
C. vertebrobasilar artery.
D. anterior cerebral artery.

Correct Answer:A
middle cerebral artery.
An adolescent is in a high school class for those with severe disabilities. The PT evaluated her physical therapy needs and set up a positioning program, a standing program, and a strengthening program. The teacher and classroom staff are carrying out all of her programs. Her wheelchair is new and fits her well. You have been assigned to provide follow up care. Her IEP states that she is to get consult services from physical therapy. The appropriate role for the a PTA to play in this child’s school curriculum is:

A. to re-assess her strength, and functional skills on a weekly basis.
B. to be available to the teacher and classroom aides to answer any questions they may have on.
C. to provide therapy as the PT has indicated in the plan of care.
D. to recommend discharge from PT as she has no needs.

Correct Answer:B
to be available to the teacher and classroom aides to answer any questions they may have on.
You are assigned to perform a whirlpool treatment with bath oil for a patient with thick, scaly plaques on her skin. This chronic condition results from stress and a lack of medication. The skin disorder characterized by this description is:

A. psoriasis.
B. scleroderma.
C. eczema.
D. polymyositis.

Correct Answer:A
psoriasis.
A patient that had experienced a head injury and has developed a flexion synergy pattern of the upper extremity would present with:

A. scapular protraction/depression, shoulder adduction/internal rotation, elbow extension/forearm pronation.
B. scapular retraction/downward rotation, shoulder abduction/internal rotation, elbow flexion/forearm pronation.
C. scapular retraction/elevation, shoulder abduction/external rotation, elbow flexion/forearm supination.
D. scapular retraction/upward rotation, shoulder adduction/external rotation, elbow extension and forearm supination.

Correct Answer:C
scapular retraction/elevation, shoulder abduction/external rotation, elbow flexion/forearm supination.
A private home care agency is scheduled for an accrediting site survey. The appropriate agency to conduct this program is the:

A. Commission on Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities CARF).
B. Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA).
C. Department of Health & Human Services.
D. Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organizations (JCAHO).

Correct Answer:D
Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organizations (JCAHO).
A patient presents with limited shoulder abduction secondary to adhesive capsulitis. The supervising physical therapist believes that grade 2 and 3 joint mobilization techniques will assist in promoting the return of normal joint accessory motion and shoulder abduction. Taking into consideration the articular surfaces of the glenohumeral joint, the direction that would be most appropriate for mobilization would be:

A. superior glide of the humerus on the scapula.
B. anterior glide of the scapula on the humerus.
C. inferior glide of the humerus on the scapula.
D. posterior glide of the humerus on the scapula.

Correct Answer:C
inferior glide of the humerus on the scapula.
A patient that you have been treating for several weeks begins to complain of abnormal burning pain in her arm. It is sensitive to touch and often swells. She states the symptoms are getting worse. The best course of action for you to take would be to:

A. discontinue treatment and contact the physician.
B. discontinue treatment and contact the PT.
C. continue treatment but call the nurse.
D. continue treatment but chart the symptoms.

Correct Answer:B
discontinue treatment and contact the PT.
Related services are mandated in the IDEA legislation to support the education of children with disabilities. These would include:

A. anything that supports the child’s education.
B. rehabilitation, recreation, audiology, and transportation.
C. services to siblings of a child with a disability.
D. after school activities, summer and weekend activities that are related to school, but are not occurring in school.

Correct Answer:B
rehabilitation, recreation, audiology, and transportation.
An infant with developmental dysplasia of the hip was just referred to the physical therapy department for splinting. You will assist the PT in measuring and fitting the splint. The most appropriate splint for this infant would be one that positions the hip in:

A. hip flexion and adduction splint.
B. hip extension and adduction splint.
C. hip flexion and abduction splint.
D. hip extension and abduction.

Correct Answer:C
hip flexion and abduction splint.
A six year-old girl with polyarticular juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) has knee flexion contractures of 15 degrees bilaterally, and has strength in the 3/5-4/5 range in her lower extremities. Her goal is to improve the strength in her lower extremities to a 4/5-5/5 range so that she can walk up one flight of stairs without assistance at school. The most appropriate treatment plan to address the child’s needs would be:

A. individual therapy focusing on weight training and jumping on a small jogging type of trampoline.
B. a group class, after school, focusing on weight training with a home program.
C. enrolling in a recreational soccer league for individuals with disabilities.
D. a group class, after school, which includes low-impact strengthening and endurance activities.

Correct Answer:D
a group class, after school, which includes low-impact strengthening and endurance activities.
You have been treating a patient with stage III lung cancer for three weeks and have noticed a change in his cognition. He has refused radiation and chemotherapy for his malignant condition. He also presents with increased muscle weakness. You suspect that the cancer has:

A. remained the same.
B. metastasized to the brain.
C. metastasized to the muscles.
D. developed a benign tumor in the lungs.

Correct Answer:B
metastasized to the brain
An infant is born with a congenital foot deformity, talipes equinovarus. The position you will note is:

A. forefoot abduction, ankle plantar flexion, varus hindfoot.
B. forefoot abduction, ankle dorsiflexion, valgus hindfoot.
C. forefoot adduction, ankle plantar flexion, and varus hindfoot.
D. forefoot adduction, ankle dorsiflexion, valgus hindfoot.

Correct Answer:C
forefoot adduction, ankle plantar flexion, and varus hindfoot.
Your patient has a complete spinal cord injury at the level of C6. You are instructing his family in exercises to maintain his passive range of motion. You want the family to focus on:

A. providing range of motion to individual muscles according to specific functional needs.
B. keeping muscles fully ranged, with hyperflexibility in the low back extensors and hamstrings.
C. limiting range of motion in the shoulders to promote stability.
D. keeping all muscles fully ranged through normal ROM.

Correct Answer:A
providing range of motion to individual muscles according to specific functional needs.
Children with spastic diplegia often have a crouched gait pattern. The crouched gait pattern includes:

A. hip flexion, abduction, external rotation, and knee flexion.
B. hip flexion, adduction, internal rotation, and knee flexion.
C. hip extension, abduction, internal rotation, and knee extension.
D. hip flexion, adduction, external rotation, and knee extension.

Correct Answer:B
hip flexion, adduction, internal rotation, and knee flexion.
You are working in a school system with a 12 year-old child with spastic quadriplegia. She uses a head switch to operate her augmentative communication device. She is dependent for transfers and mobility and has poor trunk and extremity control. The appropriate physical therapy interventions should focus on:

A. slow rhythmical movements to decrease spasticity while she is in school.
B. passive range of motion exercises to maintain muscle flexibility and comfort while she is in school.
C. power wheelchair training to improve her mobility in the school.
D. gait training to improve her mobility in the school.

Correct Answer:C
power wheelchair training to improve her mobility in the school.
While reviewing a patient’s medical record you notice that there is mention of a gallop (murmur) rhythm. This type of rhythm is usually indicative of:

A. pneumonia.
B. pulmonary edema.
C. emphysema.
D. congestive heart failure.

Correct Answer:D
congestive heart failure.
While working with an active eight year-old child with left hemiplegia, mild knee hyperextension and foot drop, an orthosis has been prescribed to correct the lower extremity problems. An appropriate orthosis to decrease the mild knee hyperextension and foot drop would be:

A. a knee-ankle-foot orthosis.
B. an ankle-foot orthosis.
C. a hip-knee-ankle-foot orthosis.
D. a shoe insert.

Correct Answer:B
an ankle-foot orthosis.
You are working with an active six year-old boy who has made gains in his lower extremity control and is ready for a new orthosis. He has good ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion strength but excessively pronates. He will require an orthosis which maintains his foot in neutral alignment and provides medial/lateral stability at the ankle while allowing free ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion. The device would be a:

A. supramalleolar orthosis.
B. hinged ankle-foot orthosis.
C. knee-ankle-foot orthosis.
D. hip-knee-ankle-foot orthosis.

Correct Answer:A
supramalleolar orthosis.
A physical therapist asks you to assist during a treatment session. The patient is a 15 year-old girl who is in a coma following a severe traumatic brain injury two weeks ago. She presents with lower extremity posturing and is beginning to lose range of motion in her ankles. The most appropriate physical therapy intervention at this time would include:

A. PNF to promote strengthening.
B. therapeutic exercise to fine tune for standing balance and coordination.
C. weightbearing activities.
D. serial casting and positioning to maintain flexibility.

Correct Answer:D
serial casting and positioning to maintain flexibility.
You have been providing physical therapy to a 60 year-old woman, following a transtibial amputation of the right lower extremity secondary to diabetes. Her daughter would like to look at her medical record. As her physical therapist assistant you should:

A. give her the chart as she is the family member and has a right to view the information.
B. not let her view the chart under any circumstances, because she may misinterpret the information.
C. deny access to the chart unless written permission is granted from the mother, and then refer her to the physical therapist.
D. let her look at the chart, but only with the physical therapist present.

Correct Answer:C
deny access to the chart unless written permission is granted from the mother, and then refer her to the physical therapist.
You are providing physical therapy interventions for a child who was born with the meninges and part of the spinal cord protruding from an abnormally formed spine in a sac. This classification of spina bifida is known as:

A. myelomeningocele.
B. meningioma.
C. hydrocephalus.
D. occulta.

Correct Answer:A
myelomeningocele
A patient presents with lateral elbow pain that has persisted for several months as a result of repetitive use of power tools. He complains of aching in his forearm and transient sharp pain when he grips an object tightly. The supervising physical therapist completed the examination and recommended a treatment program addressing chronic lateral epicondylitis. The most appropriate treatment protocols for this patient would be:

A. cryotherapy, cross friction massage followed by electrical stimulation.
B. cryotherapy prior to activities, practice using power tools with review of proper ergonomic positioning and body mechanics, and heat therapy post activities.
C. heat therapy prior to activities, practice using power tools with review of proper ergonomic positioning and body mechanics, and cryotherapy post activities.
D. heat therapy, then ultrasound followed by electrical stimulation.

Correct Answer:C
heat therapy prior to activities, practice using power tools with review of proper ergonomic positioning and body mechanics, and cryotherapy post activities.
For a child with spina bifida at the T4-5 level, your therapy interventions should focus on:

A. gait training with a knee-ankle-foot orthosis and crutches.
B. wheelchair mobility training.
C. standing balance activities with a hip-knee-ankle-foot orthosis.
D. strengthening of the hip extensors and quadriceps muscles.

Correct Answer:B
wheelchair mobility training.
While treating a 10 year-old boy with spina bifida you notice that he has lost lower extremity muscle strength and sensation over the past two weeks. This change in status may be due to a:

A. seizure disorder.
B. cleft palate.
C. shunt malfunction.
D. tethered cord.

Correct Answer:D
tethered cord.
A 23 year-old male has sustained a left quadriceps femoris strain while playing recreational volleyball two weeks ago. The supervising physical therapist has instructed you to begin a stretching program to promote a functional gain in range of motion. The patient has noted pain and discomfort with knee flexion greater than 80 degrees. The most appropriate treatment program for this patient would be:

A. moist heat followed immediately by static stretching.
B. cryotherapy followed immediately by ballistic stretching.
C. cryotherapy followed immediately by static stretching.
D. moist heat followed immediately by ballistic stretching.

Correct Answer:A
moist heat followed immediately by static stretching.
Physical therapy interventions for a child with hypertonia should include:

A. whirlpool to relax muscles and increase range of motion.
B. use of a weighted vest or belts to increase proprioceptive feedback and improve balance.
C. active weightbearing with aligned limbs and trunk to facilitate motor skills.
D. passive ROM while avoiding strength training which will increase muscle tone.

Correct Answer:C
active weightbearing with aligned limbs and trunk to facilitate motor skills
For a child with cerebral palsy and severe extensor posturing of the lower extremities, proper wheelchair positioning would include:

A. hip and knee flexion less than 90 degrees.
B. anterior tilt of the wheelchair.
C. hip and knee flexion greater than 90 degrees.
D. hip adductor wedge.

Correct Answer:C
hip and knee flexion greater than 90 degrees
A patient presents with a grade II lateral ankle sprain incurred during a volleyball game the previous night. Today, she ambulates into the clinic non-weightbearing using bilateral axillary crutches and has a compression wrap on the involved ankle. During early maximum-protection phase of rehabilitation an appropriate treatment intervention would be to:

A. promote joint protection using an air splint.
B. utilize a stationary bicycle for range of motion.
C. progress to plyometric activities.
D. encourage full weightbearing.

Correct Answer:A
promote joint protection using an air splint.
A three year-old child with cerebral palsy, presents with severe spastic quadriplegia, poor head and trunk control, no functional use of upper extremities, and extensor posturing. The appropriate piece of equipment for standing activities would be a:

A. posterior rolling walker
B. parapodium
C. dynamic stander
D. supine stander.

Correct Answer:D
supine stander.
The best way to get a four year-old child with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) to participate in strengthening activities is to include:

A. progressive resistive exercises using cuff weights and theraband.
B. daily activities such as climbing stairs, running on the playground, and ball activities.
C. PNF patterns using timing for emphasis at the end range of motion.
D. imaginative games and role playing of their favorite characters

Correct Answer:B
daily activities such as climbing stairs, running on the playground, and ball activities.
A 32 year-old patient recovering from traumatic brain injury is unable to bring her right foot up on the stair during stair climbing training. Your best strategy is to:

A. have her practice marching in place.
B. passively bring her foot up and place it on the 7 inch step.
C. practice stair climbing inside the parallel bars using a 3 inch step.
D. strengthen her hip flexors using an isokinetic training device before attempting stair climbing.

Correct Answer:C
practice stair climbing inside the parallel bars using a 3 inch step.
The primary physical therapy intervention for a young child with cystic fibrosis is:

A. postural drainage.
B. assisted cough.
C. diaphragmatic breathing.
D. pursed lip breathing.

Correct Answer:A
postural drainage.
Following a skiing accident, a 16 year-old is being seen in physical therapy with a diagnosis of radial nerve palsy secondary to a fracture of the distal third of the right humerus. The fracture is now healed you would expect this patient to be unable to:

A. extend his metacarpophalangeal joints.
B. oppose his thumb.
C. spread his fingers apart.
D. extend his elbow.

Correct Answer:A
extend his metacarpophalangeal joints.
You have been treating a 98 year-old patient for several days; the physical therapist has informed you that the patient is to be discharged home. The PT has asked you to collect specific information for her discharge and to include any recommendations you may have. The patient can independently ambulate 15 feet safely and then becomes short of breath. She is able to transfer independently and safely and is independent in getting in and out of bed. Although she is extremely slow, the patient is also independent in all of her ADL’s. She lives alone in a first floor apartment with the bedroom and living room at least 50 feet from the bathroom. It would be best that you recommend to the therapist that:

A. she stays until there is increased endurance to ambulate the 50 feet from bedroom to bathroom.
B. she be placed in a long-term care facility.
C. environmental changes, including a bedside commode, and home health services are implemented.
D. a live-in nurse (24 hour coverage) be employed until she can care for herself.

Correct Answer:C
environmental changes, including a bedside commode, and home health services are implemented
Vertebral instability at the atlanto-occipital joint is most often seen in children diagnosed with:

A. cerebral palsy.
B. spina bifida.
C. Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy.
D. Down syndrome.

Correct Answer:D
Down syndrome.
A child with Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy (DMD) demonstrates a positive Gower’s sign when standing from the floor. This would indicate weakness of:

A. back extensors.
B. knee and hip extensors.
C. hip flexors and abductors.
D. abdominals.

Correct Answer:B
knee and hip extensors
A 68 year-old patient recently suffered a Colles’ fracture as a result of an unexplained fall at home. The radiological report clearly identifies the onset of osteoporosis. Intense activity and exercise is generally regarded as a critical aspect in promoting the increase of bone density. Exercises that effectively increase bone density include:

A. weightbearing activities.
B. activities that achieve 70% of maximum heart rate.
C. activities that achieve 50% of maximum heart rate.
D. non-weightbearing activities.

Correct Answer:A
weightbearing activities
When working with children or adolescents with Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy, physical therapy interventions should not focus on:

A. stretching and positioning to prevent lower extremity contractures.
B. gait training with assistive and orthotic devices to maintain ambulation skills as long as possible.
C. weight training at maximal level to maintain strength.
D. adaptive equipment training with assistive devices such as power wheelchair and environmental control unit to maintain independence as long as possible.

Correct Answer:C
weight training at maximal level to maintain strength
Two weeks following surgical repair of an avulsion injury to the brachial plexus that occurred during delivery, physical therapy intervention for a two month-old infant would be:

A. developmental activities such as prone on elbows.
B. introduction of assistive devices to promote functional skills.
C. active strengthening exercises.
D. gentle range of motion exercises.

Correct Answer:D
gentle range of motion exercises.
You are treating a child with sickle cell anemia. The complications or problems not associated with sickle cell anemia would be:

A. stroke.
B. hydrocephalus.
C. skin ulcers.
D. osteoporosis.

Correct Answer:B
When discussing the benefits of wheelchair cushions, the PTA should explain to a patient with paraplegia that the primary cause of decubitus ulcers is:

A. friction.
B. excess moisture.
C. soap cleansers.
D. excess pressure.

Correct Answer:D
excess pressure
A 56 year-old patient you are treating who has had juvenile diabetes since the age of 11 is now receiving hemodialysis. An indication that the hemodialysis is not optimally effective would be:

A. loss of hearing.
B. headaches.
C. increased peripheral edema.
D. increased muscle strength.

Correct Answer:C
increased peripheral edema.
An eighteen year-old female basketball player is undergoing rehabilitation status post left knee anterior cruciate reconstruction. The orthopedic surgeon utilized a bone-patellar tendon-bone graft and has ordered that an accelerated rehabilitation protocol be utilized to restore function to the athlete’s lower extremities. The best description of a positive impact utilizing closed chain kinetic exercises as part of an accelerated rehabilitation protocol is promoting:

A. functional recruitment of motor units.
B. functional movement in only the cardinal planes of motion.
C. shear forces at the articular level.
D. long axis distraction of the joint.

Correct Answer:A
functional recruitment of motor units.
You are to begin treating a 40 year-old runner who has been referred to physical therapy for anterior pain in the right lower extremity. Prior to beginning treatment you find her resting heart rate to be 48 bpm. The best explanation for this is:

A. a low heart rate is suggestive of a hypotensive disorder.
B. a compensatory response to prolonged endurance activity is depressed heart rate with increased respiratory rate.
C. coronary pathology should be suspected with this abnormally low heart rate.
D. prolonged endurance training has resulted in a low heart rate.

Correct Answer:D
prolonged endurance training has resulted in a low heart rate.
Children with Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy, (DMD) often lose their ambulation skills. Wheelchair mobility will become necessary at:

A. 3-8 years.
B. 15-17 years.
C. 9-14 years.
D. 18 years-adulthood.

Correct Answer:C
9-14 years
A patient sustained lower extremity and back injuries while snow skiing. Upon returning home, the patient’s family practitioner placed him on bed rest for 10 days and instructed him to remain immobilized in bed. The potential impact of prolonged immobilization could result in:

A. disuse muscular atrophy.
B. increased muscular endurance.
C. enhanced meniscal nutrition.
D. decreased stiffness of joints and muscles.

Correct Answer:A
disuse muscular atrophy
For a seven month-old child with a brachial plexus injury that was repaired surgically several months ago, physical therapy intervention should focus on:

A. administration of hot packs to decrease inflammation.
B. facilitation of muscle activity through weightbearing activities.
C. gentle range of motion exercises to prevent contractures.
D. electrical stimulation to facilitate shoulder muscle control

Correct Answer:B
facilitation of muscle activity through weightbearing activities.
A patient presents for outpatient physical therapy services with a diagnosis of hypermobility of the right shoulder. The evaluating physical therapist identifies the hypermobility as a 4 on the 6 point scale established by Kaltenborn and Evjenth. The appropriate treatment interventions should include:

A. taping or stabilization exercises.
B. self joint mobilization.
C. overhead strengthening exercises.
D. manual peripheral joint mobilization.

Correct Answer:A
taping or stabilization exercises.
You have discovered a 42 year-old male, who apparently fell on ice. He is attempting to crawl to a dry area, about 100 feet away. You assess his ankle and notice it is disfigured, and extremely swollen. The safest intervention you could perform would be to:

A. encourage him with verbal cueing only, on the safest way to crawl without causing further injury.
B. assist him by holding the injured extremity, while he continues to crawl.
C. call 911 and cover the patient with a jacket to keep him warm until help arrives.
D. attempt to transfer him from the ground into your vehicle and transport to the nearest medical facility.

Correct Answer:C
call 911 and cover the patient with a jacket to keep him warm until help arrives
A patient sustained a complex fracture of the tibia which was immobilized with an external fixation device. While the external fixator is in place a goal of the rehabilitation program would include:

A. increasing cardiovascular fitness through aerobic exercises.
B. minimizing muscle atrophy using isometric exercises.
C. increasing muscle strength using closed chain activities.
D. increasing muscle strength of the affected limb using cuff weights.

Correct Answer: B
minimizing muscle atrophy using isometric exercises.
You are treating a two year-old child with spastic diplegia who is able to ambulate 10 feet with bilateral hand held assist. To promote continued functional mobility you would begin gait training with a:

A. supine stander.
B. Loftstrand crutch.
C. dynamic wheeled stander.
D. posterior rolling walker.

Correct Answer:D
posterior rolling walker
A patient has been admitted to a skilled nursing facility following an ORIF to the right hip for a femoral neck fracture. The supervising physical therapist has evaluated the patient. You are to begin rehabilitation consisting of strengthening to the lower extremities, gait training, transfer training and patient education. In this case a secondary complication that would not be a concern is:

A. avascular necrosis (AVN).
B. deep vein thrombosis (DVT).
C. respiratory compromise.
D. dislocation of the hip joint.

Correct Answer:D
dislocation of the hip joint
A 14 year-old gymnast has been complaining of lower back pain. It is present around the belt level bilaterally and increases when she performs a back walk-over maneuver. The supervising physical therapist is concerned that the young female may have a pars interarticularis defect (spondylolisthesis) that is responsible for the symptoms. This patient should avoid exercises that include:

A. isometric strengthening of the abdominals.
B. isotonic strengthening of the back extensors.
C. isometric strengthening of the back extensors.
D. stretching of the hamstrings.

Correct Answer:B
isotonic strengthening of the back extensors.
You are treating a patient with a transtibial amputation, in the outpatient setting. The patient received their prosthesis two months ago, wears the prosthesis 8 hours a day and is now working on her gait in order to minimize gait deviations. During therapy, you notice that the patient has developed a small ulcer on the distal-lateral aspect of her residual limb. The best course of action to be taken would be to tell the patient to:

A. continue using her prosthesis and make arrangements for the prosthetist to be present at your next session.
B. discontinue use of the prosthesis and make arrangements for the prosthetist to be present at your next session.
C. discontinue use of the prosthesis and contact the physical therapist immediately.
D. continue using her prosthesis and tell the PT about the ulcer at the next session.

Correct Answer:C
discontinue use of the prosthesis and contact the physical therapist immediately.
It is reasonable to expect that a young child with Down syndrome will:

A. learn to walk by the time he is six or seven years-old.
B. learn to walk by the time he is two to four years-old.
C. will be unable to walk independently.
D. keep up with his typically developing peers in his walking skills.

Correct Answer:B
learn to walk by the time he is two to four years-old.
You are treating a 26 year-old patient with rheumatoid arthritis who is in an acute flare-up. The patient presents with bilateral ulnar drift and swan neck deformities which affects her ability to button shirts, comb her hair, and brush her teeth. While the patient is in an acute flare-up the first intervention that focuses on preventing further deformity and loss of function would be:

A. paraffin baths.
B. fabrication of custom resting splints.
C. strengthening the intrinsic hand muscles and long finger flexors.
D. stretching the intrinsic hand muscles and long finger flexors.

Correct Answer:B
fabrication of custom resting splints.
A 45 year-old patient presents in an outpatient rehabilitation clinic with a recent history of pain in her right shoulder. That increases when she reaches overhead to perform tasks such as combing her hair or retrieving items from a top shelf. The pain has intensified and is growing more consistent; however, there are times when she is asymptomatic. The supervising physical therapist believes the patient is suffering from a shoulder impingement syndrome and has delegated treatment to you consisting of superficial thermal modalities for pain relief followed by gentle joint mobilization grades 1-2. The problem that would not be contributing to shoulder impingement syndrome is:

A. degenerative spurs in the acromioclavicular joint.
B. abnormal shape of the acromion.
C. weakness of the rotator cuff muscles.
D. tendon degeneration.

Correct Answer:C
weakness of the rotator cuff muscles.
A 72 year-old patient has developed congestive heart failure after experiencing his first myocardial infarction. The pulmonary signs and symptoms you would expect to find include:

A. crackles and cough.
B. cough productive of thick yellow secretions.
C. crackles and barrel chest.
D. inspiratory wheezing and shortness of breath.

Correct Answer:A
crackles and cough
A patient fell out of their wheelchair while in physical therapy. The incident report of this event should include:

A. the cause of the occurrence, the name of the injured and the date of the occurrence.
B. the cause of the incident, the corrective actions taken, and names of those involved.
C. the name of those involved, witnesses, what occurred, where it occurred only in event of an injury.
D. the name of those involved, witnesses, what occurred, time of occurrence, and where it occurred.

Correct Answer:D
the name of those involved, witnesses, what occurred, time of occurrence, and where it occurred.
An 86 year-old patient,in a skilled nursing facility, presents with a fractured hip, repaired with a total hip arthroplasty, and a Colles’ fracture that has been casted. The supervising therapist has had significant difficulty completing the initial assessment as the patient seems unmotivated to get out of bed and begin rehabilitation. The patient has made comments related to the pain being too severe, that he is too depressed to get out of bed, and that he needs to rest. Prior to the fall, the patient was living alone independently and still driving himself to all of his appointments and meetings. The first intervention should be concerned with:

A. increasing the patient’s endurance.
B. increasing the patient’s strength.
C. decreasing the patient’s pain.
D. decreasing the patient’s depression.

Correct Answer:C
decreasing the patient’s pain.
You are reading a plan of care for a 74 year-old female with the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. The clinical presentation of this patient will most closely follow:

A. complaints of morning stiffness; Herberden’s nodules; joints of the hand, knee, and hip involved.
B. complaints of morning stiffness; nodules over bony prominences; joints of the cervical spine, hand, and elbow involved.
C. complaints of stiffness following periods of rest; deformities of interphalangeal joints; joints of the lumbar spine, hips and knees involved.
D. complaints of pain with weight bearing; ulnar drift and subluxation of the wrist joint; joints of the wrist and hand, elbow and cervical spine involved.

Correct Answer:B
complaints of morning stiffness; nodules over bony prominences; joints of the cervical spine, hand, and elbow involved.
A patient has progressed through a range of motion program rehabilitating a grade II lateral ankle sprain. The available range of motion is now equal to that of the opposite extremity and the patient is free from pain. The next phase of rehabilitation will focus on increasing strength. Which of the following would be ineffective in increasing the patient’s strength?

A. beginning resisted range of motion exercises.
B. discharging the patient with a home exercise program consisting of passive range of motion for the entire lower extremity.
C. continuing with active-assisted range of motion exercises, now moving through full ROM.
D. beginning standing balance exercises.

Correct Answer:C
continuing with active-assisted range of motion exercises, now moving through full ROM.
The therapeutic guidelines for using intermittent traction to alleviate symptoms of a lumbar herniated disc protrusion are to:

A. utilize the lowest force possible to alleviate symptoms.
B. utilize the highest force tolerable by the patient to alleviate symptoms.
C. utilize a fixed force, between 80 and 180 pounds.
D. utilize 75 percent of the patients’ actual body weight

Correct Answer:A
utilize the lowest force possible to alleviate symptoms.
A seventeen year-old healthy female athlete is being treated for tendonitis of the right patellar tendon. The supervising PT believes that it is time to enhance her strength by introducing appropriate therapeutic exercises. The exercise principle that would most likely promote rapid strength development would be to:

A. increase the size of the muscle belly through repeated bouts of exercise.
B. begin repeated bouts of sub-maximal isometric exercise.
C. increase the recruitment of motor units through increased resistance.
D. instruct the athlete to ingest greater amounts of protein in her diet.

Correct Answer:C
increase the recruitment of motor units through increased resistance.
You are treating a patient in the acute care unit of the hospital. The patient is a 70 year-old with advanced congestive heart failure. During bedside exercises your patient begins to cough and spits up sputum streaked with a moderate amount of blood in it, and exhibits increased cyanosis. Based on these symptoms the best course of action would be for you to stop the treatment and:

A. call the physician.
B. call the physical therapist.
C. chart the symptoms.
D. call the nurse

Correct Answer:D
call the nurse
Your patient is a 63 year-old female with PVD and a recent right transtibial amputation. Two years ago she had a transfemoral amputation of her left lower extremity. Currently she is able to sit without outside support, and is able to stand with maximal support of one person. The patient is now ready to begin transfer training. To promote functional independence, the most appropriate method to transfer from the bed to the wheelchair would be to utilize a:

A. dependent standing pivot transfer.
B. sliding board transfer.
C. half-standing pivot transfer.
D. one person, dependent lift transfer.

Correct Answer:B
sliding board transfer.
You are seeing a patient in the outpatient setting 4 days after an open repair of the rotator cuff of their right shoulder. The physician is concerned that the patient may be susceptible to a loss of motion, however, does not want to jeopardize the integrity of the recently repaired musculoskeletal elements. The intervention that would be most effective to promote healing and protect the repaired structures in this case would include:

A. passive range of motion.
B. isometric exercise in the mid-range position at 70% effort.
C. light manually resisted range of motion.
D. active range of motion.

Correct Answer:A
passive range of motion.
A patient is seen bedside in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) after sustaining a fractured pelvis. At this time, the patient is unable to move the left lower extremity due to severe pain. The exercises that would be the most effective in preventing the negative effects associated with prolonged bed rest are:

A. active exercise.
B. passive range of motion.
C. active assisted range of motion.
D. resisted range of motion exercise

Correct Answer:C
active assisted range of motion
You are reviewing the chart prior to administering treatment for a 58 year-old male patient who suffered a mild stroke affecting the right middle cerebral artery 12 weeks ago. Currently the patient is coming to outpatient rehabilitation for functional activity and gait training, with a goal of independent home and community ambulation. The plan of care indicates using motor control techniques during gait training to improve hip flexion for a more functional speed and pattern. Which best represents an activity that would be included in the treatment session for this patient just prior to discharge from out-patient care?

A. practicing stepping activities in the gym with verbal and manual cues for accuracy and effectiveness.
B. practicing hip flexion activities in the supine and sitting positions to strengthen the hip flexors.
C. assessing the movement patterns and identifying possible causes for the gait deviations noted.
D. practicing stepping over objects placed on the floor in the gym setting and then ambulating on uneven surfaces outside the gym in the community.

Correct Answer:D
You are manually stretching a patient’s hamstring muscle in the supine position by performing a passive straight leg raise. The therapeutic goal is to improve long-term flexibility of the hamstring muscle. The physiological changes that you are trying to produce are:

A. elastic changes in the musculotendinous components.
B. plastic changes in the musculotendinous components.
C. plastic changes in the ligamentous components.
D. elastic changes in the ligamentous components.

Correct Answer:B
plastic changes in the musculotendinous components.
A patient who recently suffered a left hip fracture has three steps with a secure hand railing on the left side to enter her home. She has now healed sufficiently and is able to ambulate partial weightbearing on the affected side using a cane in her right hand. The sequence that would be most effective for her to ascend the steps and enter her home is:

A. hold the cane in the right hand, hold railing in the left hand, step up first with the right leg, followed by the left leg.
leg, followed by the right leg.
B. hold railing in the left hand, and step up first with the left leg, followed by the right leg.
C. hold the cane and the railing in the left hand, step up first with the right leg, followed by the left leg.
D. hold the cane in the right hand, hold railing in the left hand, and step up first with left

Correct Answer:A
hold the cane in the right hand, hold railing in the left hand, step up first with the right leg, followed by the left leg.
Your patient had a transtibial amputation three months ago and now complains of a knife-like pain or electrical shocks in her missing limb. You would note this in the medical record as:

A. phantom pain
B. phantom sensation
C. referred pain
D. local pain

Correct Answer:A
phantom pain
Physical therapy interventions to assist a two year-old child improve their balance skills in sitting would include:

A. standing the child in a standing frame while watching television.
B. supporting the child at the pelvis on your lap while tilting her side-to-side while listening to music.
C. dressing the child in a weighted vest for greater proprioceptive feedback while standing.
D. sitting the child in a wheelchair using a strap or vest attached to the back of a chair to restrain the child and play catch.

Correct Answer:B
supporting the child at the pelvis on your lap while tilting her side-to-side while listening to music.
A 67 year-old female with diabetes who had a transtibial amputation three months ago, has recently been fitted with her prosthesis. She complains of pain in the distal and posterior portion of the residual limb during ambulation. Upon inspection, there is a reddened area developing on the distal and posterior tibia. A possible cause of this problem could be attributed to:

A. weak quadriceps strength in the residual limb.
B. excessive lateral thrust of the residual limb at midstance.
C. inadequate sock layers over the residual limb within the prosthesis.
D. insufficient plantar flexion built into the prosthesis.

Correct Answer:C
inadequate sock layers over the residual limb within the prosthesis.
The physical therapist has directed the treatment of a 9-year-old boy with spina bifida, lesion at L4-5, to you. The plan of care indicates that mobility training should continue. You would expect his current mobility status to be:

A. community ambulation with crutches and AFOs
B. household ambulation with crutches and KAFOs.
C. household ambulation with RGOs and walker, and wheelchair for community mobility.
D. community mobility with a power wheelchair.

Correct Answer:A
community ambulation with crutches and AFOs
You are assigned to treat a patient who just had a Syme’s amputation. A Syme’s amputation consists of:

A. an ankle disarticulation and possible removal of the malleoli.
B. an amputation through the radius and ulna.
C. a disarticulation of the hip joint, pelvis remains intact.
D. an amputation through the midsection of the metatarsals.

Correct Answer:A
an ankle disarticulation and possible removal of the malleoli.
Children with a diagnosis of spastic diplegia type cerebral palsy will present with:

A. one arm and one leg on opposite sides impaired.
B. one arm and one leg on the same side impaired.
C. all four extremities and trunk impaired.
D. bilateral lower extremities impaired; arms, and trunk with minimal impairment.

Correct Answer:D
bilateral lower extremities impaired; arms, and trunk with minimal impairment.
You are assisting the physical therapist with ordering a wheelchair for a 77 year-old patient who is recovering from a total hip replacement surgery. Which of the following is it critical for this patient to have on their wheelchair?

A. adjustable arm rests.
B. anti-tip attachments.
C. a solid seat.
D. elevating adjustable leg rests.

Correct Answer:C
a solid seat
A patient with multiple sclerosis is agitated, irritated and tired during treatment. The best response from the PTA is to:

A. bring the patient in the pool; the warm water will be relaxing.
B. ignore these behaviors, they are expected; continue treating.
C. treat the patient in a cool environment.
D. reduce the exercise intensity and incorporate relaxation strategies.

Correct Answer:D
reduce the exercise intensity and incorporate relaxation strategies.
You are treating a patient on the coronary care unit 2 days after their coronary artery bypass surgery. The patient is a 72 year-old male. An appropriate exercise regimen for this patient at this stage of recovery would include:

A. ankle pumps, exercises that increase the heart rate 10-15 beats over the resting level.
B. ankle pumps, exercises that increase the heart rate 1-5 beats over the resting level.
C. exercises that increase the heart rate 30 beats over the resting level, and upper extremity exercises using 1 pound.
D. exercises that increase the heart rate 10-15 beats over the resting level, and upper extremity exercises using 8 pounds.

Correct Answer:A
ankle pumps, exercises that increase the heart rate 10-15 beats over the resting level.
You are preparing to treat a client in an outpatient setting, 14 days following injury. Your client was involved in a severe car accident and suffered a cervical fracture with incomplete spinal cord damage. The physician has written an order for outpatient physical therapy to begin a strengthening, balance, and endurance program. The physical therapist has completed the initial evaluation and has directed the treatment to you. What type of stabilization device would you expect the patient to arrive in?

A. a body jacket.
B. a halo with vest attachment.
C. cervical tongs.
D. a Philadelphia collar.

Correct Answer:B
a halo with vest attachment
The MOST appropriate position to guard a patient who is descending stairs for the first time using crutches and non-weightbearing on the right side is to:

A. stand behind and slightly to the right side.
B. stand in front and slightly to the left side.
C. stand behind and slightly to the right side.
D. stand in front and slightly to the right side.

Correct Answer:D
stand in front and slightly to the right side.
Using a quick or ballistic stretching technique can prove to be dangerous to the integrity of the muscle and the musculotendinous unit. A disadvantage of ballistic stretching is that it:

A. will promote plastic elongation of the muscle and tendons.
B. is likely to inhibit the stretch reflex which will allow for a full stretch.
C. is likely to elicit a stretch reflex, which will prohibit a full stretch.
D. will not facilitate safer shortening of the muscle and tendons.

Correct Answer:C
is likely to elicit a stretch reflex, which will prohibit a full stretch.
A 12 year-old child with autism encounters a change in routine at school. He is likely to react by:

A. having a temper tantrum, screaming and displaying stereotypical behaviors like hand flapping, as well as social withdrawal.
B. refusing to participate, disagreeing verbally with direction, or withdrawing by going to sleep.
C. demonstrating increased excitement and the inability to sit still disturbing classmates by talking and distracting them.
D. becoming a leader among his peers, directing others to participate in the new routine.

Correct Answer:A
having a temper tantrum, screaming and displaying stereotypical behaviors like hand flapping, as well as social withdrawal.
The PT has finished an evaluation on a male patient who suffered a closed head injury in a motor vehicle accident two weeks ago. The patient is able to respond to simple commands and requires a structured environment. His memory is still severely impaired; however his past memory is better than recent memory. Communication is difficult, as the patient tends to confabulate. Based on the symptoms, this patient would be classified on the Rancho Los Amigos Levels of Cognitive Functioning Scale as:

A. Level III, Localized response.
B. Level V, Confused-Inappropriate.
C. Level VII, Automatic-Appropriate.
D. Level I, No Response.

Correct Answer:B
Level V, Confused-Inappropriate.
You are working with a patient who has Parkinson’s disease. The patient demonstrates the typical pattern of slow movements, resting tremors, and decreased postural reflexes. The intervention that would meet an identified goal of improved ambulation activities would include:

A. sitting ‘pelvic clock’ exercises on a physio-ball.
B. standing marching and foot placing activities.
C. Frenkel’s lower extremity coordination exercises.
D. assisted segmental rolling activities.

Correct Answer:B
standing marching and foot placing activities.
A federal law mandates that individualized educational services in the least restrictive environment be provided, free of charge, for qualifying children with disabilities. This includes children from birth to twenty-one years of age. This mandate is referred to as:

A. the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).
B. the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).
C. the Technology Assistance Act.
D. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act.

Correct Answer:A
the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).
You have been assigned to treat a patient with Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy. The common patterns that are characteristics of this disorder would include:

A. hypersensitivity in the tissues of the lower extremity, typically associated with an insult to the central nervous system or a systemic disease process.
B. general weakness of the facial nerves of one side of the face, affecting expression and eye lid control.
C. bilateral lower extremities affected, gait pattern is dominated by a scissoring gait.
D. progressive muscular weakness from proximal to distal musculature

Correct Answer:D
progressive muscular weakness from proximal to distal musculature
You are working with a patient who has just received a new plastic, solid ankle AFO. Wearing schedules and tissue inspection are a big part of adjusting to a new AFO. The areas you will closely monitor for proper relief and tissue breakdown are:

A. popliteal space, posterior calf musculature, malleoli, Achilles tendon, base of the metatarsals.
B. tibial condyles, tibial tuberosity, anterodistal tibia, metatarsal heads.
C. calf band, fibular head, popliteal fossa, malleoli, styloid process of the 5th metatarsal.
D. pelvic band, quadriceps tendon, popliteal space, tibial tuberosity, navicular.

Correct Answer:C
calf band, fibular head, popliteal fossa, malleoli, styloid process of the 5th metatarsal.
You are preparing to treat a patient with an injury to the posterior knee that crushed the tibial nerve. The PT evaluation identifies both motor and sensory involvement. You would expect the patient to present with:

A. increased muscle tone and spasticity of the plantarflexors and invertors of the ankle, as well as absent sensation over the posterior calf and plantar surface of the foot.
B. increased muscle tone and spasticity of the knee flexors, as well as absent sensation over the posterior thigh area.
C. decreased muscle tone of the knee flexors, as well as paresthesia of the posterior thigh and knee.
D. decreased muscle tone of the plantarflexors and invertors of the ankle, as well as paresthesia of the posterior calf and plantar surface of the foot.

Correct Answer:A
increased muscle tone and spasticity of the plantarflexors and invertors of the ankle, as well as absent sensation over the posterior calf and plantar surface of the foot.
You are working with a 58 year-old patient who has the diagnosis of glenohumeral joint instability and degenerative rotator cuff tears. The physician has chosen to treat the patient conservatively without surgery. To prevent any further injury to the structures, your treatment approach should avoid:

A. positioning the shoulder in adduction and internal rotation.
B. placing the shoulder in an abducted or externally rotated position.
C. passively moving the shoulder through available range of motion within the limits of pain.
D. immobilizing the shoulder in slight abduction, internal rotation, and neutral extension.

Correct Answer:B
placing the shoulder in an abducted or externally rotated position.
You are working with a 72 year-old patient who has suffered a CVA and requires a wheelchair for mobility. The supervising physical therapist has asked you to write up the dimensions for the family to follow to construct a wheelchair ramp. The correct measurements are:

A. 1 inch of rise to 12 inches of run, with a maximum rise of 15 inches.
B. 1 inch of rise to 12 inches of run, with a maximum rise of 25 inches.
C. 1 inch of rise to 12 inches of run, with a maximum rise of 30 inches.
D. 1 inch of rise to 12 inches of run, with a maximum rise of 20 inches.

Correct Answer:C
1 inch of rise to 12 inches of run, with a maximum rise of 30 inches.
A PTA is working with a patient who has right hemiparesis and is demonstrating good recovery. Both involved limbs are categorized at Brunnstrom Stage 4 recovery. He is ambulatory with a small-base quad cane. The activity that would be most appropriate for a patient at this stage of recovery is:

A. standing with the hip extended while flexing the knee and slowly lowering the foot back to the floor.
B. supine, bending the hip and knee up to the chest and slowly lowering the foot back to the mat.
C. sitting, marching in place and incorporating elbow flexion with the marching pattern.
D. supine, active assistive D1 and D2 flexion patterns with the lower extremities.

Correct Answer:A
standing with the hip extended while flexing the knee and slowly lowering the foot back to the floor.
A patient with hemiparesis has difficulty clearing the affected foot during the swing phase of gait. An appropriate physical therapy intervention to improve function in the affected lower extremity would include:

A. sitting on a Swiss ball, alternating lateral side steps.
B. forward step-ups in standing using graduated height steps.
C. bridging through full range of motion.
D. pushing backward while sitting on a rolling stool.

Correct Answer:B
forward step-ups in standing using graduated height steps.
A PTA is working with a 20 year-old recovering from a complete spinal cord injury, at the C6 neurological level. Which of the following movements or motions would you expect to be intact with this patient?

A. all shoulder motions as well as all elbow motions.
B. shoulder external rotation and abduction.
C. scapular elevation and respiration.
D. shoulder flexion, extension and all elbow motions.

Correct Answer:D
shoulder flexion, extension and all elbow motions.
An eight-month-old child with Down Syndrome is able to sit by himself with his hands free for brief periods of time. His overall muscle tone is likely:

A. fluctuating.
B. absent.
C. hypotonic.
D. hypertonic.

Correct Answer:C
hypotonic.
A PTA is performing passive range of motion exercises on a patient who is comatose following a traumatic head injury. A family member voices concern with the PTAs techniques because the occupational therapist has just instructed them in range of motion exercises using a different technique. The best way to deal with this situation is to:

A. tell the family that you will discuss these differences with the therapists, and report the outcome to the family as soon as possible.
B. ask the family member to demonstrate what they learned and then perform ROM exercise using that technique.
C. tell the family member that there is no need to worry and note the problem in the patient’s daily medical record.
D. clarify with the supervising OT what ROM technique they would like you to choose.

Correct Answer:A

tell the family that you will discuss these differences with the therapists, and report the outcome to the family as soon as possible.

A 73 year-old patient with Parkinson’s disease demonstrates significant rigidity. His posture is kyphotic with a forward head and both shoulders are limited in flexion, abduction, and external rotation. The exercise that would be most appropriate to address this problem would be:

A. rhythmic initiation with bilateral upper extremities in the PNF diagonal extension patterns.
B. rhythmic holding with the bilateral upper extremities.
C. isometric holding, stressing upper extremity flexion patterns.
D. rhythmic initiation with bilateral symmetrical upper extremities in the PNF diagonal flexion patterns.

Correct Answer:D
rhythmic initiation with bilateral symmetrical upper extremities in the PNF diagonal flexion patterns.
A patient is having difficulty learning how to transfer from mat to wheelchair. He cannot seem to get the idea of how to coordinate this movement even after numerous attempts. In this case the most effective use of feedback during early motor learning should:

A. focus on tactile and visual feedback for correct technique.
B. provide only proprioceptive feedback for the correct technique and no feedback for incorrect technique.
C. focus on limiting feedback to verbal cues only.
D. provide verbal feedback and physical assistance only after the patient fatigues.

Correct Answer:A
focus on tactile and visual feedback for correct technique.
A patient using an incentive spirometer complains of feeling lightheaded. Your instructions to the patient should be to:

A. try to use the spirometer more frequently to get used to it.
B. lie down while using the spirometer.
C . take a rest period and only use the device 10 x/hr.
D. take a deeper breath on the following attempt.

Correct Answer:C
take a rest period and only use the device 10 x/hr.
Isokinetic training could best be used in the rehabilitation of patients following a CVA during the late stages of recovery to improve:

A. strength of synergistic muscle groups.
B. the ability to control movements at slower speeds.
C. the ability to control movements at faster speeds.
D. initiation of movements.

Correct Answer:C
the ability to control movements at faster speeds.
A 16 year-old male with a traumatic brain injury is inconsistently oriented to time and place. He is unable to remember recent events and shows little or no carry-over for new learning. The primary focus of rehabilitation at this stage of recovery is to:

A. promote increased arousal and attention through the use of sensory stimulation techniques.
B. develop an environment and daily structure in which the patient is best able to process stimuli cognitively.
C. promote independence in problem solving skills.
D. increase functional independence in bed mobility and transfers.

Correct Answer:B
develop an environment and daily structure in which the patient is best able to process stimuli cognitively.
There are several precautions or contraindications for the use of postural drainage. A precaution for postural drainage in the Trendelenburg position (feet elevated) would include:

A. claustrophobia.
B. rib fractures.
C. humeral fracture.
D. congestive heart failure.

Correct Answer:D
congestive heart failure.
The PT has just finished her evaluation of a male patient who is 29 years-old. The patient is diagnosed with paraplegia at the L4-5 level. The PT has met with the orthotist and they have discussed the most appropriate orthotic device to use in the continued care of this patient. This patient is able to perform all transfers independently, perform independent skin inspections, can stand and ambulate with forearm crutches and is independent in all ADL’s. The most appropriate orthosis to promote continued independent function would be a/an:

A. solid ankle AFO.
B. articulating AFO.
C. TLSO.
D. KAFO.

Correct Answer:D
KAFO.
You are treating a patient who is 79 years-old and exhibits impaired balance without any specific etiology. Appropriate initial balance interventions should not include:

A. limits of stability re-education: postural sway training.
B. tandem walking and single limb stance.
C. practicing a wide base of support during gait and turns.
D. sit-to-stand activity training.

Correct Answer:B
tandem walking and single limb stance.
Evaluation findings for a 10 year-old boy include pain and limited ROM following a surgical repair of the medial collateral ligament and the anterior cruciate ligament. The plan of care includes use of physical agents for pain control and tissue healing. The modality that would be inadvisable to use with this patient is:

A. ultrasound.
B. transcutaneous electrical stimulation.
C. shortwave diathermy.
D. interferential current.

Correct Answer:A
ultrasound
A PTA is working with a patient who is 80 years-old and is recovering from a right CVA. The PT evaluation identifies that the patient demonstrates intact sensation, and active voluntary movement at all upper extremity joints. When the patient attempts to don her sweater independently she is seems to be unable to move her upper extremities to do so. This patient is demonstrating:

A. ataxia.
B. aphasia.
C. apraxia.
D. agnosia.

Correct Answer:C
apraxia.
Long term care for institutionalized elderly who and have reduced their financial resources and qualify for low-income status is typically funded by:

A. the Social Security Administration.
B. Medicaid.
C. Medicare.
D. a health maintenance organization.

Correct Answer:B
Medicaid
As a result of a drug overdose a 25 year-old female suffered permanent damage to her nervous system which affected the basal ganglia. It is most likely that her symptoms will include:

A. dysdiadochokinesia.
B. ataxia.
C. poor motor planning.
D. hypotonia.

Correct Answer:C
poor motor planning.
You are caring for a 55 year-old patient who is in cardiac rehabilitation phase II. The PT has identified that the patient is to work out at 60% of their maximum heart rate. Which of the following represents the correct method to calculate a patient’s target heart rate?

A. 220 – (age).
B. 220 – (age) x 0.6.
C. 220 + (age) x 0.6.
D. 220 + (age) ÷ 0.6.

Correct Answer:B
220 – (age) x 0.6.
Tagged In :

Get help with your homework


image
Haven't found the Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample For Only $13.90/page

Sarah from studyhippoHi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out