Post Practice Test 2 MCAT Review

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What is a hypertonic solution?
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A solution with comparatively more solute dissolved.
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What is a hypotonic solution?
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A solution with comparatively less solute dissolved.
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What are boiling point conditions?
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When a liquid’s vapor pressure is equal to the external atmospheric pressure.
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What is beta-minus decay?
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When a neutron becomes a proton and emits an electron.
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What is beta-positive decay?
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Otherwise known as positron emission, a proton becomes a neutron by emitting a positron.
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What is electron capture decay?
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When an electron is captured by the nucleus and combines with a proton to become a neutron, ejecting a neutrino.
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What is the formal charge equation?
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FC = # valence electrons – # lone pair electrons – # bonds (think –> valence electrons – dots – sticks)
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What is the torque equation?
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T = r*Fsin(theta)
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What is Newton’s Third Law?
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Every action (ex. force) has an equal and opposite reaction, so the Earth exerts gravity on an object and that object exerts the same gravity on the Earth (the Earth is just much bigger, so it is not as affected).
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Why is N2 a useful gas for organic chemical reactions?
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N2 gas is pretty inert, so it can be used as a gas in the environment that won’t have side reactions.
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What unit is power measured in?
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Money. Just kidding, Watts.
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How do you add resistors in parallel? In series?
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In parallel – 1/R = 1/R1 + 1/R2 etc. In series – R = R1 + R2 etc.
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How do you add capacitors in parallel? In series?
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In parallel – C = C1 + C2 etc. In series – 1/C = 1/C1 + 1/C2 etc.
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What types of hormones are aldosterone and estrogen? What about insulin?
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Aldosterone and estrogen are steroid hormones, insulin is a peptide hormone.
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What do these classes of enzyme do? Oxidoreductases, transferases, lyases, isomerases.
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Oxidoreductases – redox reactions; Transferases – move functional groups around; Lyases – break molecules in half; Isomerases – convert molecules to their isomers.
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What is the code for the amino acid that creates disulphide bonds?
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C, for cysteine.
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How do reduction potentials progress throughout the electron transport chain?
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The proteins have more and more reduction potential, and oxygen (at the end of the chain) has the greatest reduction potential, in voltage.
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What is the relationship between Keq and change in G?
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An increase in Keq decreases change in G, and vice versa. A Keq greater than 1 favors products, and less than 1 favors reactants.
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What is included when considering hybridization?
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The number of bonds, and the number of lone pair sets.
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What is the relationship between Ka and Keq?
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They are equal, as the association constant is generally the same as the equilibrium constant.
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What groups stable a carbocation on a molecule?
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Those that contribute electron density, often through resonance, add to carbocation stability. Highly electronegative groups destabilize.
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What is the Gibbs Free Energy equation?
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G = H – TS
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What is the force of friction equation?
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Ff = uFN (coefficient of friction * normal force)
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What are efferent and afferent neurons?
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Efferent neurons transmit signals from the brain to the body, and afferent neurons transmit signals from the body to the brain. (Effect vs. Affected by)
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What are bivalent ions?
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Ions with two valence electrons.
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What do all eukaryotic genes have?
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Their own transcription start site, which does not allow operon systems.
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What is the most common viral capsid shape?
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Icosahedral, which is 20 faces.
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How does genetic drift relate to Y chromosomes?
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A father may not pass on his Y chromosome if he only has female offspring, and genetic drift occurs.
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What does aldosterone do? Where is it from?
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It’s excreted by the adrenal cortex in response to low blood pressure, and causes kidneys to reabsorb Na+ in the distal tubule/collecting duct, creating a gradient for water re-absorption and higher blood pressure.
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What does ADH do? Where is it from?
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It stands for antidiuretic hormone, and it is signaled by the hypothalamus to be secreted from the pituitary to upregulate aquaporin production to increase water uptake.
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What are the cathode and anode, and their charges?
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The cathode is negative, attracts positive charges. The anode is positive, attracts negative charges.
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What is troponin?
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A complex of proteins used in contractions in skeletal and cardiac muscle.
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What is the Hardy-Weinberg equation?
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p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1
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What is lactate?
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Lactic acid, is a product of fermentation.
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What is a nonsense mutation?
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A mutation that causes a premature stop codon. Stop codons include UGA, UAA, UAG.
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What are analogous and homologus structures?
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Analogous structures perform the same function, homologus structures have the same evolutionary structure.
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What is an embedded field study?
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When researchers immerse themselves into the field being studied.
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What is a longitudinal study?
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Analysis of subjects over time.
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What is a mediating variable?
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It explains the relationship between two other variables.
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What is a moderating variable?
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It alters the relationship between two variables.
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What is a confounding variable?
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A variable that is not normally of interest, but still affects the relationship of the two other variables.
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What is Cross’ Nigrescence Model? What is the pre-encounter stage? What is the immersion-emersion stage? What is the internalization stage?
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A model for African-American identity formation, for becoming culturally aware of black identity. The pre-encounter stage believes Caucasian culture to be more desirable. The immersion-emersion stage views Caucasian culture with distrust and prefers members of own culture. The internalization stage integrates own culture with the majority Caucasian culture and works to fix past racial injustices.
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What do drive-reduction theorists believe?
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They believe motivation is from a need to fill a drive, and that depression results from a reduction in motivating sources of arousal.
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What do cognitive theorists believe?
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They believe arousal sustains most behaviours.
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How do the frontal lobe, limbic system, and hypothalamus affect emotion and depression?
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The frontal lobe is used to predict future consequences of current actions. The limbic system regulates emotion and memory. The hypothalamus controls hormone regulation, some that affect mood.
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What is incidence?
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The number of new cases of a diagnosis over a certain time interval.
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What is prevalence?
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How common a diagnosis is, including new cases.
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What are risk ratios?
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The risk of a diagnosis between certain groups.
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What is mortality rate?
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The number of deaths due to a diagnosis in a certain period of time.
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What is an external vs. internal locus of control?
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The belief that one has no control over life events vs. believing that one has control over life events.
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What is a cross-sectional experiment?
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When researchers examine a group at one point in time.
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What are the gestalt principles?
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The principles of vision where one perceives patterns and shapes when they are not actually there. The principles include similarity (seeing objects as a group because they are similar), continuation (vision moves along a line/curve naturally), closure (fill in incomplete shapes/enclose a space), proximity (perceive close objects as a group), figure/ground (differentiating between an object of focus and a the background).
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What is attrition bias?
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When participants drop out of a long-term study.
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What is reconstructive bias?
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When recollection of a memory is inaccurate.
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What is social desirability bias?
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When answers are given in a manner that was socially acceptable.
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What is selection bias?
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How people are chosen to participate in a study.
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What is distress, eustress, and neustress?
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Distress – negative, bad stress that is due to a perceived threat. Eustress – positive, motivating stress due to a challenge that is perceived as doable. Neustress – neutral, unaffective stress due to an indirect stressor such as a natural disaster far away.
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What is the Schacter-Singer theory?
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The theory states that emotional processing has three stages – a physiological response, a cognitive realization, and an experience of emotion.
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What is the Yerkes-Dodson Law?
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The postulation that people perform their best when they are moderately emotionally stimulated.
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What is cognitive dissonance?
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Having two contradictory beliefs at the same time.
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What is a variable-ratio schedule?
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A schedule of reward that reinforces participation, by offering a positive stimulus after an unknown number of times.
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What is the Stroop effect?
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The effect where it is harder to understand different information about colour than information that is in agreement.
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What is construct validity?
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How terms are defined in a study.
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What is external validity?
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How generalizable the results of a study are to other surroundings.
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What is criterion validity?
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How well a variable can predict a certain outcome.
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What do baroreceptors detect?
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Pressure in tissue.
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What do stretch receptors detect?
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Stretch of tissue.
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What do olfactory receptors detect?
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Smell.
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What do nocireceptors detect?
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Pain.
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What is episodic memory?
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Memory from personal experience.
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What is procedural memory?
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Memory of actions and behaviours.
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What is conditional memory?
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Memory based on associations between things.
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What are extrinsic vs. intrinsic motivation?
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Outer vs. inner motivation and reward.
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What is the double approach-avoidant conflict?
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There are two options that both have desirable and undesirable traits.
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What is the approach-approach conflict?
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There are two options that are both appealing.
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What is the avoidant-avoidant conflict?
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There are two options that are both unappealing.
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What is the approach-avoidant conflict?
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There is one option that is both appealing and unappealing.

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