Pols 101

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Globalization
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The trend toward increased cultural and economic connectedness and interdependence between people, businesses, and organizations throughout the world.
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Politics
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The authoritative allocation of values for a society.
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Public Policy
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A choice that government makes in response to a political issue. A policy is a course of action taken with regard to some problem
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Government
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The legitimate use of force to control human behavior: also and organization or agency authorized to exercise that force……
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Purposes of government
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1. maintain order (preserving life and protecting property) 2. providing public goods 3. promoting equality
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Freedom Of
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An absence of constraints on behavior, as in freedom of speech or freedom of religion.
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Freedom From
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Immunity, as in freedom from want.The fight against exploitation and oppression.
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Three aspects of order
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safety health and Welfare also Morals
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Political equality
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equality in political decision making: one vote per person, with all votes counted equally
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social equality
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Equality in wealth, education, and status.
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equality of opportunity
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Giving people an equal chance to succeed.
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Equality of outcome
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The concept that society must ensure that people are equal, and governments must design policies to redistribute wealth and status so that economic and social equality is actually achieved
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Dilemmas of Governemt
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Freedom Vs. Order & freedom Vs, Equality
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Political Ideology
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A consistent pattern of beliefs about political values and the role of government.
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Totalitariansim
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controlling all aspects of life: social, economic, political; only thing matter is the state;
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Socialism
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A form of rule in which the central government plays a strong role in regulating existing private industry and directing the economy, although it does allow some private ownership of productive capacity.
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Capitalism
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an economic system in which businesses are owned by private citizens (not by the government) and in which the resulting products and services are sold with relatively little government control
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Liberal
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a person who generally believes the government should take an active role in the economy and in social programs but that the government should not dictate social behavior. promote equality over order.
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Conservative
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Promote order over equality smaller government intrusion.
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Libertarian
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one who favors a free market economy and no governmental interference in personal liberties
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Communitarian
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those who are willing to use government to promote both order and equality
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Differences between liberals and conservatives
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LIBERALS – believe in government action to achieve equal opportunity and equality for all. CONSERVATIVES – believe in personal responsibility, limited government, free markets, individual liberty, traditional American values and a strong national defense.
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Civil Liberties
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the guarantees of the safety of persons, opinions, and property from the arbitrary acts of government, including freedom of speech and freedom of religion
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CIvil Rights
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policies designed to protect people against arbitrary or discriminatory treatment by government officials or individuals.
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Establishment Clause
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Clause in the First Amendment that says the government may not establish an official religion.
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Free exercise clause
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First Amendment requirement that law cannot prevent free exercise of religion.
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Three pronged test regarding Establisment clauseestablishment clause
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They Must have a secular purpose, Must not advance or inhibit religion, Must not entangle Govt. excessively with religion
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two clauses related to free expression
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Freedom Of Speech, freedom Of press
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Prior restraint
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government censorship of information before it is published or broadcast
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Clear and present danger
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A principle established by the Supreme Court that limits free speech if the words will bring about substantive evils
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Bills of attainder
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a law that punishes a person accused of a crime without a trial or a fair hearing in court
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Ex post facto laws
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A law which punishes people for a crime that was not a crime when it was committed. Congress cannot pass these laws.
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Obligations of contracts
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the obligation of the parties to a contract to carry out its terms.
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Ninth amendment
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states that people have rights other than those specifically mentioned in the Constitution.
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Marketplace of ideas
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a concept at the core of the freedoms of expression and press, based on the belief that true and free political discourse depends on a free and un-restrained discussion of ideas
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Primary rights for universities
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free from harassment, intimidation physical harm or emotional abuse.
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Secondary rights universities
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right to express personal beliefs that do not provoke intimidate harass or harm others
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Purpose of three civil war amendments
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abolish slavery, Depriving people of life liberty or property without due process of law. Right to vote
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Invidious discrimination
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discrimination against groups that works to their harm and is based on animosity
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racsim
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The belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial difference produce an inherent superiority of a particular race.
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racial segregation
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Separation from society because of race
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de jure segregation
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Racial segregation that occurs because of laws or administrative decisions by public agencies.
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de facto segregation
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segregation resulting from economic or social conditions or personal choice
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protectionism
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The idea under which some people have tried to rationalize discriminatory policies by claiming that some groups, like women or African Americans, should be denied certain rights for their own safety or well-being.
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sexism
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the belief that one sex is innately superior to the other
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Civil Rights Act
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(LBJ) 1964 , LBJ passed this in 1964. Prohibited discrimination of African Americans in employement, voting, or public accomidations. Also said there could be no discrimination against race, color, sex, religion, or national origin, had to take literacy test
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Affrimative Action
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A policy in educational admissions or job hiring that gives special attention or compensatory treatment to traditionally disadvantaged groups in an effort to overcome present effects of past discrimination.
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Reverse Discrimination
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The assertion that affirmative action programs that require preferential treatment for minorities discriminate against those who have no minority status.
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Equal opportunity
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a guarantee that government and private institutions will not discriminate against people on the basis of factors such as race, religion, age, gender, or disability.
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Equal outcome
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idea that society must ensure that people are equal, government must design policies to redistribute wealth and status so that economic and social equality is achieved
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Equal protection clause
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Clause in the Fourteenth Amendment that forbids any state to deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. By interpretation, the Fifth Amendment imposes the same limitation on the national government. This clause is the major constitutional restraint on the power of governments to discriminate against persons because of race, national origin, or sex.
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strict scrutiny
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a Supreme Court test to see if a law denies equal protection because it does not serve a compelling state interest and is not narrowly tailored to achieve that goal.
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Democracy
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government by the people
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Procedural democracy theory
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A view of democracy as embodied in a 1. decision making process,2. involves universal participation,3. political equality and 4. responsiveness.,
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Participatory democracy
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a theory of democracy that holds that citizens should actively and directly control all aspects of their lives
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representative democracy
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A system of government in which citizens elect representatives, or leaders, to make decisions about the laws for all the people.
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substantive democracy theory
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Look at the Substance of the policies rather than the policymaking procedure – Government should do what the majority wants regardless of what it is -Holds that the government must guarantee at a minimum civil liberty & civil rights

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