Political Science 2320 -Txst

question

What is policy analysis?
answer

Policy analysis conducts research that breaks down an issue. It is the study of public problems and emerging concerns & proposed policy alternatives.
question

What is the purpose of policy analysis?
answer

To inform and develop understanding in order to make better policy.
question

Who performs policy analysis?
answer

Government agencies (federal & state), Universities, Think tanks, and interest groups
question

What are the three different approaches to policy analysis?
answer

Scientific, Political, and Professional
question

What is the scientific approach?
answer

It uses the scientific method to test hypothesis and theories; aim for objective and rigorous analysis. Policy relevance less important than advancing knowledge.
question

What is the professional approach?
answer

Uses research and theory to understand consequences of policy alternatives; evaluate current programs and their effects. Goal of practical value in policy debate.
question

What is the political approach?
answer

Uses legal, economic, and political arguments consistent with value positions. Aim to influence policy debate to realize organizational goals & values. (Examples: AARP, National Conservancy)
question

Why use policy analysis?
answer

It is simply a better policy. It puts the emphasis on policy alternatives. *When policies are rushed, policy analysis gets shorted.*
question

Policy Analysis is a Career Field? True or False
answer

True. Advocacy, Political positions, and elected officials.
question

What methods are used in policy analysis?
answer

Tools: Research, Modeling, Hearings, Debate. Disciplines/Perspectives: Economics, Psychology, Political Science, etc.
question

What are the steps that help with rational problem solving?
answer

Rational decision making: Define the problem, indicate the goal, consider alternative solutions, evaluate each alternative for consequences, and choose the alternative with the greatest potential for solving the problem? Incremental decision making: Provides a more realistic approach. Limited research and new policy.
question

What is the difference between Root Cause & Proximate Cause Approach?
answer

Root: Digging deeper (intensive research) to find info. Proximate: Just pertains to the surface info rather than digging deeper.
question

What is the difference between Comprehensive and Short Term Approach?
answer

Comprehensive is more elaborate and time consuming; while Short Term is more focused and brief.
question

What is the difference between Consensual and Contentious Approach?
answer

Consensual uses more mainstream public values to solve the problem. They are likely to be more socially & politically acceptable; while Contentious is more radical, and challenges or proposes new values or new ways of thinking about the problem.
question

What is the difference between Rational and Democratic Approach?
answer

Rational uses economic analysis and quantitative methods to develop a logical, efficient, and effective way to deal with the public problem. Democratic try to use citizen involvement and democracy prevail.
question

What are the steps in the Policy Analysis Process?
answer

Define and analyze the problem, construct policy alternatives, develop evaluative criteria, asses policy alternatives, and draw conclusions.
question

Analyzing problems, studying possible policy alternatives, and evaluating the efficiency or effectiveness of policies are examples of what?
answer

Policy Analysis
question

Researchers and academics conduct research to develop a rigorous and in depth understanding of public problems and policy alternatives. This approach to policy analysis is __________.
answer

Scientific
question

Being committed to specific policy values and goals, as well as ideological and partisan agendas, is known as the ____________ approach to policy analysis.
answer

Political
question

Making modest changes in policy is known as what?
answer

Incremental Decision Making
question

Which best describes the approaches being taken by states to address the problem of cell phone use by drivers?
answer

Most states have banned text messaging by drivers, but states have done a variety of things with regard to cell phone use while driving
question

A systematic and organized way to evaluate problems, policy alternatives, or the effectiveness of government programs is referred to as
answer

Policy Analysis
question

Which is the correct sequence in the policy analysis process?
answer

Analyze problem, analyze policy alternatives, develop criteria, assess
question

The ____ orientation/approach to policymaking often involves peer-reviewed research using controlled studies.
answer

Scientific
question

Which of the following conduct different kinds of policy analysis that is often very helpful to the policy-making process?
answer

Government Agencies, Interest groups, and Think Tanks.
question

A growing sector of private organizations that conduct policy research often used by government policymakers are called
answer

Think Tanks
question

Which of the following illustrates an operational measure of school quality?
answer

Standardized Test Scores
question

Which of the following illustrates an operational measure of the safety of a community?
answer

Index crime rates, (such as violent and property crimes), Automobile crashes per capital, and how safe residents report that they feel on a survey.
question

A ____ approach to policy analysis focuses on understanding the underlying conditions that are causing a public problem, while the ___ approach focuses more on how to alleviate shorter term symptoms of the problem.
answer

Root cause/proximate cause
question

____ involves defining the problem, indicating goals and objectives to be sought, considering a range of alternatives, and evaluating each alternative before recommending a particular solution.
answer

Rational Decision Making
question

Which of the following statements best illustrates the rational-comprehensive approach to decision making?
answer

The government collected data about illegal immigrants (geographic location, type of employment, and how they got here) and then developed a comprehensive new policy tailored to their findings.
question

Which of the following is an example of data that could be collected to study the root causes of poverty?
answer

The number of students that drop out of high school
question

Which of the following is most likely to conduct political forms of policy analysis?
answer

National Rifle Association (NRA)
question

Think tanks study problems and alternatives in order to help policymakers make decisions. The type of policy analysis typically conducted by think tanks is called
answer

Professional
question

Which of the following policy analysis criteria is used if the acceptability of a particular alternative to interest groups, the general public, or politicians is a concern?
answer

Political Feasibility
question

To reduce drivers’ cell phone use, should state governments institute sanctions such as tickets or fines? Or should they try to educate drivers on cell phone use? These are examples of which part of the policy analysis process?
answer

Construct policy alternatives
question

In order to choose which policy options (such as sanctions or public education) are better than others to reduce cell phone use, policy analysts might use the criterion of efficiency. What question would they ask related to efficiency?
answer

For what we invest, which of these options is likely to do the best job of reducing cell phone use?
question

In order to choose which policy options (such as sanctions or public education) are better than others to reduce cell phone use, policy analysts might use the criterion of liberty. What question would they ask related to liberty?
answer

Which of these options will least restrict people’s freedom and choice?
question

Policy analysts that propose policies which align with mainstream public values are taking an approach to policy formulation known as _____.
answer

Adhering to Consensual Norms
question

The Cato Institute and the Heritage Foundation often use ____ to promote a preferred policy.
answer

Political policy analysis
question

Which of the following policy analysis criteria would be used if a fair and just evaluation were a concern?
answer

Equity
question

The case of immigration reform illustrates the importance of ____ .
answer

A strong problem analysis
question

What does problem definition involve?
answer

Defining and measuring the scope of a societal problem. Political influence on how the problem is framed. Conducting or reviewing research that documents a societal problem.
question

Policy analysts study the nature of the problem. Which statement below best defines what this refers to?
answer

The severity, scope, and causes of the problem
question

The policy instrument of _____ refers to government attempts to convey important information to citizens in order to influence their behavior.
answer

Education
question

What is regulating defined as?
answer

The government requiring certain activities be done, and if not, assessing penalties.
question

Market incentives as tools or instruments of policy are defined as what?
answer

A special category of taxing or imposing fees to encourage consumers or companies to change behavior
question

The U.S. government administers the Medicare program. Which of the following describes the type of policy tool being used in this situation?
answer

Government Management
question

When developing policy alternatives to address a problem, the policymaker should examine ____, which refer to how well the policy has worked in a state, pilot test, or other smaller-scale attempt to implement it.
answer

Real world or parallel situations
question

____ are observable ways to define a problem.
answer

Operational Measures
question

Indicators of sustainability refer to ___ data that attempt to measure a community’s progress toward the goal of sustainability.
answer

Quantitative
question

Which creative thinking tool begins with an analysis of the status quo as a baseline?
answer

No-action Analysis
question

Examining books, journals, and reports regarding a particular problem or solution represents the use of the ____ technique of collecting information.
answer

Literature Review
question

Governments may invest in training programs for their own staff or for the public. This policy design tool is referred to as?
answer

Capacity- Building Tools
question

____ involves finding solutions to a problem by spontaneously sharing ideas without initial regard to practicality or feasibility.
answer

Brainstorming
question

Which of the following information sources would provide an overview of a subject or problem that would be a good place to begin the process of policy analysis?
answer

The New York Times
question

Providing direct payments or benefits to individuals is an example of
answer

Subsidizing
question

Public service announcements on television or radio represent what form of government policy tool?
answer

Education
question

The policy design tools that rely on the premise that most people will behave because they have been told to do so are known as
answer

Authority Tools
question

When the government encourages you to buy a home by allowing you to take an interest deduction, it is using which policy instrument?
answer

Taxing and Spending
question

The National Park Service (NPS) issues a limited number of backpacking permits at some parks. What type of policy tool is this?
answer

Rationing
question

Local governments often hire nonprofit organizations to provide some of the services government provides, such as treatment for drug addiction or maintenance of trails. These are examples of __.
answer

Contracting Out
question

In an attempt to change the behavior or attitudes of citizens, government leaders often use ____ policy tools, which refer to making public addresses or speeches to exhort citizens to do something.
answer

Hortatory
question

A city that encourages citizens to serve on a community sustainability advisory panel so that they will develop greater awareness and engagement is using a ____ policy tool.
answer

Learning
question

When developing policy alternatives to address a problem, the policymaker should examine ____, which refer to how well the policy has worked in a state, pilot test, or other smaller-scale attempt to implement it.
answer

Real world or parallel situations
question

When determining how to respond to rising energy costs, policymakers assessed the likely environmental, health, and safety impacts of energy exploration, development, and use. This is an example of?
answer

Applying risk assessment approaches to analyze policy options
question

Nearly every policy proposal is concerned with the criterion of ______.
answer

Effectiveness
question

Not every state has laws that require motorcyclists to wear helmets even though they have been shown to reduce the severity of injuries in the event of an accident. States without these laws have weighed the criterion of ___ more strongly than effectiveness.
answer

Liberty/Freedom
question

Many individuals recently urged President Obama to reform health care by setting up a single payer system like the Canadian system. In developing his health care reform plan, the president ruled out that option early using the criterion of ____, because it was likely to be “dead on arrival” in Congress.
answer

Political Feasibility
question

With the scarcity of government resources in the past several years, the evaluative criterion of ___ has become more and more important.
answer

Efficiency
question

Do federally funded abstinence-only programs actually prevent teenage pregnancy? This is a question that relates to the _____ of that policy alternative.
answer

Effectiveness
question

In some states, legislators may be more likely to propose laws allowing gay marriage than in other states. Gay marriage is more _____ in the states that pass such laws.
answer

Socially Acceptable
question

____ refers to the availability and reliability of technology needed for policy implementation.
answer

Technical Feasibilty
question

Which of the following policy analysis criteria looks at the achievement of goals in relationship to the costs to achieve them?
answer

Efficiency
question

Which of the following policy analysis criteria deals with whether a policy has a fair process or policy outcome?
answer

Equity
question

Which statement best describes the relationship of policy analysis to the policy process model?
answer

Policy analysis supports the policy process at several points by increasing understanding of problems and possible solutions
question

____ refers to the policy analysis method that assesses the potential for harm that might result (to people or to the environment) if potential hazards should occur.
answer

Risk analysis
question

Cost/benefit analysis is a useful tool in policy analysis. It can be used to
answer

Analyze the efficiency of various possible policy alternatives
question

Evaluative criteria are?
answer

The important aspects of the policy proposal on which you will make comparisons
question

This term is used in cost-benefit analysis when discussing what the value of future benefits are today?
answer

Discount Rate
question

This “cousin” of cost-benefit analysis does not attempt to assign dollar values to potential benefits, but instead assumes they will occur and looks for the cheapest way to achieve them.?
answer

Cost-effectiveness analysis
question

____ focuses on analyzing policy results and outcomes.
answer

Program Evaluation
question

____ deals with the likelihood that an agency or department can implement a policy well.
answer

Administrative feasibilty
question

A difficult and relatively infrequent type of policy analysis that systematically examines conflicts and concerns about policy alternatives from the standpoint of values and rights is referred to as
answer

Ethical Analysis
question

Which government office is in charge of monitoring how other agencies conduct cost-benefit analyses?
answer

Office of Management and Budget
question

A local government is interested in planning for certain services for older adults as the baby boom generation ages. The agency develops estimates of the number of older adults who will be living in the area in 2015, 2020, 2025, and 2030. This is an example of
answer

Forecasting
question

Policy analysts can estimate the value of a human life through ____.
answer

Contingent valuation methods
question

Being stuck in traffic imposes ____ on drivers because they could be doing something more productive with their time.
answer

An opportunity Cost
question

A college student could be working as a waiter and earning $20,000 annually. However, he is attending college and forgoing that income. This is an example of the ____ to attend college, a cost that the student hopes will be worth the investment in the long run.
answer

Opportunity Cost

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member