PMP 5th – Chapter 6 – Project Time Management

Project Time Management
Includes the processes required to manage timely completion of the project.
Project Time Management Processes (7)
1 Plan Schedule Management
2 Define Activities
3 Sequence Activities
4 Estimate Activity Resources
5 Estimate Activity Durations
6 Develop Schedule
7 Control Schedule
Schedule Model
Representation of the plan for executing
the project’s activities including durations, dependencies, and other planning information, used to produce project schedules along with other scheduling artifacts.
Schedule Management Plan
– A subsidiary plan of, and component of the project management plan through the Develop Project Management Plan process;
– Identifies a scheduling method and scheduling
– Sets the format and establishes criteria for developing and controlling the project schedule;
– May be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based upon the needs of the project, and includes appropriate control thresholds;
– Defines how schedule contingencies will be reported and assessed;
– may be updated to reflect a change in the way the schedule is managed;
Scheduling Methodology
Defines the rules and approaches for the scheduling process. Some of the better known methodologies include:
– Critical path method (CPM)
– Critical chain
The majority of effort in the Project Time Management Knowledge Area will occur in…
The Control Schedule process to ensure completion of project work in a timely manner.
Process: Plan Schedule Management
– The process of establishing the policies, procedures, and documentation for planning, developing, managing, executing, and controlling the project schedule.
– The benefit of this process is that it provides guidance and direction on how the project schedule will be managed throughout the project.
Input (4) of the Plan Schedule Management process
1 Project management plan
2 Project charter
3 Enterprise environmental factors
4 Organizational process assets
Project management plan
– Contains information used to develop the schedule management plan which includes:
– scope baseline => includes the project
scope statement and the work breakdown
structure (WBS) details used for defining
activities, duration estimation, and schedule
– Other information => Other scheduling
related cost, risk, and communications
decisions from the project management plan
are used to develop the schedule.
Project charter
Defines the summary milestone schedule and project approval requirements that will influence the management of the project schedule.
Enterprise environmental factors
Influence the Plan Schedule Management
process include:
– Organizational culture and structure can all influence schedule management;
– Resource availability and skills that may influence schedule planning;
– Project management software provides the scheduling tool and alternative possibilities for managing the schedule;
– Published commercial information, such as resource productivity information, is often available from commercial databases that track;
– Organizational work authorization systems.
Organizational process assets
Factors can influence:
– Monitoring and reporting tools to be used;
– Historical information;
– Schedule control tools;
– formal and informal schedule control related policies, procedures, and guidelines;
– Templates;
– Project closure guidelines;
– Change control procedures;
– Risk control procedures including risk categories, probability definition and impact, and probability and impact matrix.
Tools & Techniques (3) of the Plan Schedule Management process
1 Expert judgment
2 Analytical techniques
3 Meetings
Expert judgment
– Guided by historical information, provides
valuable insight about the environment and
information from prior similar projects.
Analytical techniques
– The process involve strategic options to estimate and schedule the project such as: scheduling methodology, scheduling tools and techniques, estimating approaches, formats, and project management software.
– rolling wave planning
– leads and lags
– alternatives analysis
– methods for reviewing schedule performance
Project teams may hold planning meetings to develop the schedule management plan. Participants: project manager, the project sponsor, selected project team members, selected stakeholders, anyone with responsibility for schedule planning or execution, and others as needed.
Output (1) of the Plan Schedule Management process
1 Schedule management plan
Schedule management plan
A component of the project management plan that establishes the criteria and the activities for developing, monitoring, and controlling the schedule. The schedule management plan may be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based upon the needs of the project, and includes appropriate control thresholds.
The schedule management plan can establish the following
• Project schedule model development
• Level of accuracy
• Units of measure
• Organizational procedures links
• Project schedule model maintenance
• Control thresholds
• Rules of performance measurement
• Reporting formats
• Process descriptions
Project schedule model development
The scheduling methodology and the scheduling tool to be used in the development of the project schedule model are specified.
Level of accuracy
The acceptable range used in determining realistic activity duration estimates is specified and may include an amount for contingencies.
Units of measure
Each unit used in measurements (such as staff hours, staff days, or weeks for time measures, or meters, liters, tons, kilometers, or cubic yards for quantity measures) is defined for each of the resources.
Organizational procedures links
The WBS provides the framework for the schedule management plan, allowing for consistency with the estimates and resulting schedules.
Project schedule model maintenance
The process used to update the status and record progress of the project in the schedule model during the execution of the project is defined.
Control thresholds
Variance thresholds for monitoring schedule performance may be specified to indicate an agreed-upon amount of variation to be allowed before some action needs to be taken. Thresholds are typically expressed as percentage deviations from the parameters established in the baseline plan.
Rules of performance measurement
Earned value management (EVM) rules or other physical measurement rules of performance measurement are set. For example, the schedule management plan may specify:
○○ Rules for establishing percent complete,
○○ Control accounts at which management
of progress and schedule will be measured,
○○ Earned value measurement techniques
(e.g., baselines, fixed-formula, percent
complete, etc.) to be employed (for more
specific information, refer to the Practice
Standard for Earned Value Management) [9],
○○ Schedule performance measurements
such as schedule variance (SV) and
schedule performance index (SPI) used to
assess the magnitude of variation to the
original schedule baseline.
Reporting formats
The formats and frequency for the various schedule reports are defined.
Process descriptions
Descriptions of each of the schedule management processes are documented.
Process: Define Activities
– The process of identifying the specific actions to be performed to produce the project deliverables.
– The key benefit of this process is to break down work packages into activities that provide a basis for estimating, scheduling, executing, monitoring, and controlling the project work.
Inputs (4) of the Define Activities process
1 Schedule management plan
2 Scope baseline
3 Enterprise environmental factors
4 Organizational process assets
Schedule management plan
A key input from the schedule management plan is the prescribed level of detail necessary to manage the work.
Scope Baseline
The project deliverables, constraints, and assumptions documented in the project scope baseline are considered explicitly while defining activities.
Enterprise Environmental Factors
Influence the Define Activities process include:
– Organizational cultures and structure,
– Published commercial information from commercial databases
– The project management information system (PMIS)
Organizational Process Assets
– Existing formal and informal activity planning-related policies, procedures, and guidelines, such as the scheduling methodology, that are considered in developing the activity definitions.
– Lessons-learned knowledge base containing historical information regarding activities lists used by previous similar projects.
Tools & Techniques (3) Define Activities process
1 Decomposition
2 Rolling wave planning
3 Expert judgment
– Involves subdividing the project work packages into smaller, more manageable components called activities.
– Activities represent the effort needed to complete a work package.
– The Define Activities process defines the final outputs as activities rather than deliverables, as done in the Create WBS process.
– The activity list, WBS, and WBS dictionary can be developed either sequentially or concurrently, with the WBS and WBS dictionary as the basis for development of the final activity list.
– Each work package within the WBS is decomposed into the activities required to produce the work package deliverables.
– Involving team members in the decomposition can lead to better and more accurate results.
Rolling Wave Planning
A form of progressive elaboration (iterative) planning where the work to be accomplished in the near term is planned in detail and future work is planned at a higher level of the WBS.
Expert Judgement
Project team members or other experts, who are experienced and skilled in developing detailed project scope statements, the WBS, and project schedules, can provide expertise in defining activities.
Outputs (3) of the Define Activities process
1 Activity list
2 Activity attributes
3 Milestone list
Activity List
A comprehensive list including all schedule activities required on the project. The activity list includes the activity identifier and a scope of work description for each activity in sufficient detail to ensure that project team members understand what work is required to be completed.
Activity Attributes
Activity attributes extend the description of the activity by identifying the multiple components associated with each activity.
Components of Activity Attributes
-The components for each activity evolve over time.
– During the initial stages of the project they include the Activity ID, WBS ID, and Activity Name, and when completed may include activity codes, activity description, predecessor activities, successor activities, logical relationships, leads and lags, resource requirements, imposed dates, constraints, and assumptions.
Activity attributes can be used to
– Identify the person responsible for executing the work,
– geographic area, or
– place where the work has to be performed, and
– activity type such as level of effort (LOE), discrete effort, and apportioned effort (AE).
Activity attributes are used for
Schedule development and for selecting, ordering, and sorting the planned schedule activities in various ways within reports.
Milestone List
Identifies all milestones and indicates whether the milestone is mandatory, such as those required by contract, or optional, such as those based upon historical information.
– A significant point or event in the project.
-They have zero duration because milestones represent a moment in time.
Process: Sequence Activities
– The process of identifying and documenting relationships among the project activities
– The key benefit of this process is that it defines the logical sequence of work to obtain the greatest efficiency given all project constraints.
Characteristics of Sequence Activities
– Every activity and milestone except the first and last are connected to at least one predecessor and one successor.
– It may be necessary to use lead or lag time between activities to support a realistic and achievable project schedule.
– Sequencing can be performed by using project management software or by using manual or automated techniques.
Inputs (7) of the Sequence Activities process
1 Schedule management plan
2 Activity list
3 Activity attributes
4 Milestone list
5 Project scope statement
6 Enterprise environmental factors
7 Organizational process assets
Schedule management plan
Identifies the scheduling method and tool to be
used for the project, which will guide how the activities may be sequenced.
Activity list
Contains all schedule activities required on the project, which are to be sequenced. Dependencies and other constraints for these activities can influence the sequencing of the
Activity attributes
Describe a necessary sequence of events or defined predecessor or successor relationships.
Milestone list
The milestone list may have scheduled dates for specific milestones, which may influence the way activities are sequenced.
Project Scope Statement
Contains the product scope description, which includes product characteristics that may affect activity sequencing, such as the physical layout of a plant to be constructed or subsystem interfaces on a software project. While these effects are often apparent in the activity list, the product scope description is generally reviewed to ensure accuracy.
Enterprise environmental factors
• Government or industry standards,
• Project management information system (PMIS),
• Scheduling tool,
• Company work authorization systems.
Organizational process assets
Factors can be influence: project files from the corporate knowledge base used for scheduling methodology, existing formal and informal activity planning-related policies, procedures, and guidelines, such as the scheduling methodology that are considered in developing logical relationships, and templates that can be used to expedite the preparation of networks of project activities. Related activity attributes information in templates can also contain additional descriptive information useful in sequencing activities.
Tools & Techniques (3) Sequence Activities process
1 Precedence diagramming method (PDM)
2 Dependency determination
3 Leads and lags
Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM)
– Also referred to as Activity-On-Node (AON)
– A method used in Critical Path Methodology (CPM) for constructing a project schedule network diagram that uses boxes or rectangles, referred to as nodes, to represent activities, and connects them with arrows that show the logical relationships that exist between them.
– The method used by most project management software packages.
Precedence Diagramming Method
Critical Path Methodology
Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) Relationship Types
– Finish-to-start (FS).
– Finish-to-finish (FF).
– Start-to-start (SS).
– Start-to-finish (SF).
Finish-to-start. The initiation of the successor activity depends upon the completion of the predecessor activity. The most commonly used type of precedence relationship
Finish-to-finish. The completion of the successor activity depends upon the completion of the predecessor activity.
Start-to-start. The initiation of the successor activity depends upon the initiation of the predecessor activity.
Start-to-finish. The completion of the successor activity depends upon the initiation of the predecessor activity.
Dependency Determination
– Mandatory dependencies
– Discretionary dependencies
– External dependencies
– Internal dependencies
Mandatory Dependencies
– Mandatory dependencies are those that are contractually required or inherent in the nature of the work.
– Also sometimes referred to as hard logic or hard dependencies.
Examples of Mandatory Dependencies
Mandatory dependencies often involve physical limitations:
– construction project where it is impossible to erect the superstructure until after the foundation has been built;
– an electronics project, where a prototype must be built before it can be tested.
Discretionary Dependencies
– Discretionary dependencies are established based on knowledge of best practices within a particular application area or some unusual aspect of the project where a specific sequence is desired, even though there may be other acceptable sequences.
– Also sometimes referred to as preferred logic, preferential logic, or soft logic.
Fast Tracking and Discretionary Dependencies
– Discretionary dependencies should be fully documented since they can create arbitrary total float values and can limit later scheduling options.
– When fast tracking techniques are employed, these discretionary dependencies should be reviewed and considered for modification or removal.
External Dependencies
External dependencies involve a relationship between project activities and non-project activities. These dependencies are usually outside the project team’s control.
Internal Dependencies
Internal dependencies involve a precedence relationship between project activities and are generally inside the project team’s control.
Leads and Lags
– The project management team determines the dependencies that may require a lead or a lag to accurately define the logical relationship.
– The use of leads and lags should not replace schedule logic.
– Activities and their related assumptions should be documented.
Allows an acceleration of the successor activity
Directs a delay in the successor activity
Outputs (2) of the Sequence Activities process
1 Project schedule network diagrams
2 Project documents updates
Project Schedule Network Diagram
– It is a graphical representation of the logical relationships, also referred to as
dependencies, among the project schedule activities.
– The project schedule network diagram can be produced manually or by using project management software.
Components of a Project Schedule Network Diagram
– It can include full project details, or have one or more summary activities.
– A summary narrative can accompany the diagram and describe the basic approach used to sequence the activities.
– Any unusual activity sequences within the network should be fully described within the narrative.
Project Document Updates
Project documents that may be updated include:
– Activity lists
– Activity attributes
– Milestone list
– Risk register
Process: Estimate Activity Resources
– The process of estimating the type and quantities of material, people, equipment, or supplies required to perform each activity.
– The key benefit of this process is that it
identifies the type, quantity, and characteristics of resources required to complete the activity which allows more accurate cost and duration estimates.
Inputs (8) of the Estimate Activity Resources process
1 Schedule management plan
2 Activity list
3 Activity attributes
4 Resource calendars
5 Risk register
6 Activity cost estimates
7 Enterprise environmental factors
8 Organizational process assets
Schedule management plan
Identifies the level of accuracy and the units of
measure for the resources to be estimated.
Activity list
Identifies the activities which will need resources.
Activity Attributes
Provides the primary data input for use in estimating those resources required for each activity.
Resource Calendars
Information on which resources (such as people, equipment, and material) are potentially available during planned activity period.
Characteristics of Resource Calendars
– Used for estimating resource utilization.
– Resource calendars specify when and how long identified project resources will be available during the project.
– This information may be at the activity or project level.
– This knowledge includes consideration of attributes such as resource experience and/or skill level, as well as various geographical locations from which the resources originate and when they may be available.
Composite Resource Calendar
Includes the availability, capabilities, and skills of human resources
Risk Register
– Events may impact resource selection and availability.
– Updates to the risk register are included with project documents updates.
Activity Cost Estimates
The cost of resources may impact resource selection.
Enterprise Environmental Factors
Factors can influence: resource location, availability, and skills.
Organizational Process Assets
Factors can influence:
– Policies and procedures regarding staffing.
– Policies and procedures relating to rental and purchase of supplies and equipment.
– Historical information regarding types of resources used for similar work on previous project.
Tools & Techniques (5) Estimate Activity Resources process
1 Expert judgment
2 Alternative analysis
3 Published estimating data
4 Bottom-up estimating
5 Project management software
Expert Judgement
Often required to assess the resource-related inputs to this process. Any group or person
with specialized knowledge in resource planning and estimating can provide such expertise.
Alternative Analysis
Many schedule activities have alternative methods of accomplishment. They include using various levels of resource capability or skills, different size or type of machines, different tools (hand versus automated), and makerent-or-buy decisions regarding the resource.
Published Estimating Data
Several companies routinely publish updated production rates and unit costs of resources for an extensive array of labor trades, material, and equipment for different countries and geographical locations within countries.
Bottom Up Estimating
– It is a method of estimating project duration or cost by aggregating the estimates of the
lower-level components of the WBS.
– When an activity cannot be estimated with a reasonable degree of confidence, the work within the activity is decomposed into more detail.
– The resource needs are estimated.
– These estimates are then aggregated into a total quantity for each of the activity’s resources.
Bottom Up Estimating Activity Dependencies
– Activities may or may not have dependencies between them that can affect the application and use of resources.
– If there are dependencies, this pattern of resource usage is reflected and documented in the estimated requirements of the activity.
Project management software
Has the capability to help plan, organize, and manage resource pools and develop resource estimates. Depending on the sophistication of the software, resource breakdown structures, resource availability, resource rates and various resource calendars can be defined to assist in optimizing resource utilization.
Outputs (3) of the Estimate Activity Resources process
1 Activity resource requirements
2 Resource breakdown structure
3 Project documents updates
Activity Resource Requirements
– Identifies the types and quantities of resources required for each activity in a work package.
– These requirements can then be aggregated to determine the estimated resources for each work package and work period.
– The amount of detail and the level of specificity of the resource requirement descriptions
can vary by application area.
Resource Requirements Documentation
For each activity, can include the basis of estimate for each resource, as well as the assumptions that were made in determining which types of resources are applied, their availability, and what quantities are used.
Resource Breakdown Structure
A hierarchical structure of the identified resources by resource category and resource type.
Examples of Resource Categories
labor, material, equipment, and supplies
Examples of Resource Types
skill level, grade level or other information as appropriate to the project
Purpose of Resource Breakdown Structure
Useful for organizing and reporting project schedule data with resource utilization information.
Project Document Updates
– Activity list
– Activity attributes
– Resource calendars
Process: Estimate Activity Durations
– The process of approximating the number of work periods needed to complete individual activities with estimated resources.
– The key benefit of this process is that it provides the amount of time each activity will take to complete.
Characteristics of Estimate Activity Durations
– Uses information on activity scope of work, required resource types, estimated resource quantities, and resource calendars.
– The inputs for the estimates of activity duration originate from the person or group on the project team who is most familiar with the nature of the work in the specific activity.
– The duration estimate is progressively elaborated, and the process considers the quality and availability of the input data.
– Requires that the amount of work effort required to complete the activity is estimated and the amount of resources to be applied to complete the activity is estimated; these are used to approximate the number of work periods (activity duration) needed to complete the activity.
– All data and assumptions that support duration estimating are documented for each estimate of activity duration.
Inputs (10) of the Estimate Activity Durations process
1 Schedule management plan
2 Activity list
3 Activity attributes
4 Activity resource requirements
5 Resource calendars
6 Project scope statement
7 Risk register
8 Resource breakdown structure
9 Enterprise environmental factors
10 Organizational process assets
Schedule Management Plan
Defines the method used and the level of accuracy along with other criteria required to estimate activity duration including the project update cycle.
Activity list
Identifies the activities that will need duration estimates.
Activity attributes
Provide the primary data input for use in estimating durations required for each activity in the activity list.
Activity Resource Requirements
Will have an effect on the duration of the activity, since the resources assigned to the activity and the availability of those resources will significantly influence the duration of most activities.
Resource Calendars
The resource calendars influence the duration of schedule activities due to the availability of specific resources, type of resources, and resources with specific attributes.
Project Scope Statement
– The constraints and assumptions from the project scope statement are considered when estimating the activity duration.
-Examples of the Assumptions:
– Existing conditions,
– Availability of information, and
– Length of the reporting periods
Examples of the Constraints:
– Available skilled resources, and
– Contract terms and requirements
Risk Register
– Provides the list of risks, along with the results of risk analysis and risk response planning.
– Updates to the risk register are included with project document updates.
Resource Breakdown Structure
Provides a hierarchical structure of the identified
resources by resource category and resource type.
Enterprise Environmental Factors
Factors can influence:
– Duration estimating databases and other reference data
– Productivity metrics
– Published commercial information
– Location of team members.
Organizational Process Assets
Factors can influence:
– Historical duration information
– Project calendars
– Scheduling methodology
– Lessons learned
Tools & Techniques (6) for Estimate Activity Durations process
1 Expert judgment
2 Analogous estimating
3 Parametric estimating
4 Three-point estimating
5 Group decision-making techniques
6 Reserve analysis
Expert Judgement
– Guided by historical information, can provide duration estimate information or recommended maximum activity durations from prior similar projects.
– Can also be used to determine whether to combine methods of estimating and how to reconcile differences between them.
Analogous Estimating
– Technique for estimating the duration or cost of an activity or a project using historical data from a similar activity or project.
– Uses parameters such as duration, budget, size, weight, and complexity, from a previous, similar project, as the basis for estimating the same parameter or measure for a future project.
Characteristics of Analogous Estimating
– When estimating duration, this technique relies on the actual duration of previous, similar projects as the basis for estimating the duration of the current project.
– It is a gross value estimating approach, sometimes adjusted for known differences in project complexity.
– Frequently used to estimate project duration when there is a limited amount of detailed information about the project.
– Uses historical information and expert judgment.
– Generally less costly and time consuming than other techniques, but it is also generally less accurate.
– Can be applied to a total project or to segments of a project and may be used in conjunction with other estimating methods.
– Is most reliable when the previous activities are similar in fact and not just in appearance, and the project team members preparing the estimates have the needed expertise.
Parametric Estimating
Uses a statistical relationship between historical data and other variables (e.g., square footage in construction) to calculate an estimate for activity parameters, such as cost, budget, and duration. Activity durations can be quantitatively determined by multiplying the quantity of work to be performed by labor hours per unit of work.
Characteristics of Parametric Estimating
– Can produce higher levels of accuracy depending upon the sophistication and underlying data built into the model.
– Can be applied to a total project or to segments of a project, in conjunction with other estimating methods.
Three-Point Estimates
The accuracy of activity duration estimates can be improved by considering estimation uncertainty and risk.
Program Evaluation and Review Technique. Uses three estimates to define an approximate range for an activity’s duration. PERT analysis calculates an Expected (tE) activity duration using a weighted average of these three estimates.
PERT Estimate Types
– Most Likely
– Optimistic
– Pessimistic
PERT: Most Likely Estimate
The duration of the activity, given the resources likely to be assigned, their productivity, realistic expectations of availability for the activity, dependencies on other participants, and interruptions.
PERT: Optimistic Estimate
The activity duration is based on analysis of the best-case scenario for the activity.
PERT: Pessimistic Estimate
The activity duration is based on analysis of the worst-case scenario for the activity.
Benefit of PERT
Duration estimates based on the PERT equation, or even on a simple average of the three points, may provide more accuracy, and the three points clarify the range of uncertainty of the duration estimates.
Group decision-making techniques
– Team-based approaches:
– brainstorming
– the Delphi or nominal group techniques,
are useful for engaging team members to improve estimate accuracy and commitment to the emerging estimates.
– Involving a structured group of people who are close to the technical execution of work in the estimation process, additional information
is gained and more accurate estimates obtained.
– People are involved in the estimation process, their commitment towards meeting the resulting estimates increases.
Reserve Analysis
Duration estimates may include contingency reserves, (sometimes referred to as time reserves or buffers) into the overall project schedule to account for schedule uncertainty.
Contingency Reserves
Time reserves or buffers. May be a percentage of the estimated activity duration, a fixed number of work periods, or may be developed by using quantitative analysis methods.
Characteristics of Contingency Reserves
– As more precise information about the project becomes available, the contingency reserve may be used, reduced, or eliminated.
– Contingency should be clearly identified in schedule documentation.
Outputs (2) of the Estimate Activity Durations process
1 Activity duration estimates
2 Project documents updates
Activity Duration Estimates
Are quantitative assessments of the likely number of work periods that will be required to complete an activity. Duration estimates do not include any lags.
May include some indication of the range of possible results. For example:
– 2 weeks ± 2 days to indicate that the activity will take at least eight days and no more than twelve (assuming a five-day workweek).
– 15% probability of exceeding three weeks to indicate a high probability—85% percent—that the activity will take three weeks or less.
Project Document Updates
– Activity attributes
– Assumptions made in developing the activity duration estimate such as skill levels and availability
Process: Develop Schedule
– The process of analyzing activity sequences, durations, resource requirements, and schedule constraints to create the project schedule model.
– The key benefit of this process is that by entering schedule activities, durations, resources, resource availabilities, and logical relationships into the scheduling tool, it generates a schedule model with planned dates for completing project activities.
Characteristics of Develop Schedule
– Entering the activities, durations, and resources into the scheduling tool generates a schedule with planned dates for completing project activities.
– It determines the planned start and finish dates for project activities and milestones.
– Developing an acceptable project schedule is often an iterative process.
– Schedule development can require the review and revision of duration estimates and resource estimates to create an approved project schedule that can serve as a baseline to track progress.
– Revising and maintaining a realistic schedule continues throughout the project as work progresses, the project management plan changes, and the nature of risk events evolves.
Inputs (13) of the Develop Schedule process
1 Schedule management plan
2 Activity list
3 Activity attributes
4 Project schedule network diagrams
5 Activity resource requirements
6 Resource calendars
7 Activity duration estimates
8 Project scope statement
9 Risk register
10 Project staff assignments
11 Resource breakdown structure
12 Enterprise environmental factors
13 Organizational process assets
Schedule management plan
Identifies the scheduling method and tool used to
create the schedule, and how the schedule is to be calculated.
Activity List
Identifies the activities that will be included in the schedule model.
Activity Attributes
Provide the details used to build the schedule model.
Project Schedule Network Diagrams
Contain the logical relationships of predecessors and successors that will be used to calculate the schedule.
Activity Resource Requirements
Identify the types and quantities of resources
required for each activity used to create the schedule model.
Resource calendars
Contain information on the availability of
resources during the project.
Activity duration estimates
Contain the quantitative assessments of the likely
number of work periods that will be required to complete an activity that will be used to calculate the schedule.
Project Scope Statement
Contains assumptions and constraints that can impact the development of the project schedule.
Risk Register
Provides the details of all identified risks and their characteristics that affect the schedule model.
Project Staff Assignments
Specify which resources are assigned to each
Resource Breakdown Structure
Provides the details by which resource analysis
and organizational reporting can be done.
Entperise Environmental Factors
Factors can be include:
– Standards
– Communication channels
– Scheduling tool to be used in developing the schedule model.
Organizational Process Assets
Factors can be include:
– Scheduling methodology
– Project calendar
Tools & Techniques (8) for Develop Schedule process
1 Schedule network analysis
2 Critical path method
3 Critical chain method
4 Resource optimization techniques
5 Modeling techniques
6 Leads and lags
7 Schedule compression
8 Scheduling tool
Scheduling Network Analysis
A technique that generates the project schedule model. It employs various analytical techniques, such as critical path method, critical chain method, what-if analysis, and resource leveling to calculate the early and late start and finish dates for the uncompleted portions of project activities. Some network paths may have points of path convergence or path divergence that can be identified and used in schedule compression analysis or other analyses.
Critical Path Method (CPM)
– A method used to estimate the minimum project duration and determine the amount of scheduling flexibility on the logical network paths within the schedule model.
– Calculates the theoretical early start and finish dates, and late start and finish dates, for all activities without regard for any resource limitations, by performing a forward and backward pass analysis through the schedule network.
– The resulting early and late start and finish dates are not necessarily the project schedule; rather, they indicate the time periods within which the activity could be scheduled, given activity durations, logical relationships, leads, lags, and other known constraints.
Activity Total Float
Calculated early start and finish dates, and late start and finish dates, may be affected by activity total float, which provides schedule flexibility and, may be positive, negative, or zero.
Critical Path
Have either a zero or negative Total Float
Total Float
On any network path, the schedule flexibility is measured by the positive difference between early and late dates.
Critical Activities
Schedule activities on a critical path.
Zero Total Float
Critical Path
Networks are going to have multiple…
Near critical paths
produce network paths with a zero or positive total float
Adjustments to activity durations, logical relationships, leads and lags, or other schedule constraints.
Free Float
The amount of time that an activity can be delayed without delaying the early start date of any immediate successor activity within the network path. Can be determined after the total float of network path has been calculated.
Critical Chain Method (CCM)
Is a schedule network analysis technique that modifies the project schedule to account for limited resources. Adds duration buffers that are non-work schedule activities to manage uncertainty.
Duration of a Project
– Should be calculated after drawing a network diagram and determining the critical path.
– The length of the critical path and not the sum of the duration of all the tasks in the project.
Slack for tasks on the critical path
is equal to zero
The more critical paths
the more project risk
Negative Critical Path
The project float compares the critical path with an externally imposed date and may be negative. You may be forced to fast track or perform crashing to ensure that the project is completed on time as required by the management. There will be no change to the critical path.
Determining the Critical Chain
– Initially, the project schedule network diagram is built using duration estimates with required dependencies and defined constraints as inputs.
– The critical path is then calculated.
– After the critical path is identified, resource availability is entered and the resource-limited schedule result is determined.
– The resulting schedule often has an altered critical path.
Critical Chain
The resource-constrained critical path
Project Buffer
One buffer, placed at the end of the critical chain, protects the target finish date from slippage along the critical chain.
Feeding Buffer
Additional buffers are placed at each point that a chain of dependent tasks not on the critical chain feeds into the critical chain. Feeding buffers thus protect the critical chain from slippage along the feeding chains.
Duration Buffers
– Non-work schedule activities to manage uncertainty.
– The size of each buffer should account for the uncertainty in the duration of the chain of dependent tasks leading up to that buffer.
– Once the buffer schedule activities are determined, the planned activities are scheduled to their latest possible planned start and finish dates.
The Critical Chain Method focuses on
Consequently, instead of managing the total float of network paths, the critical chain method focuses on managing remaining buffer durations against the remaining durations of task chains.
Resource optimization techniques
Example of resource optimization techniques that can be used to adjust the schedule model due to demand and supply of resources.
Can be:
– Resource Leveling
– Resource Smoothing
Resource Leveling
It is a schedule network analysis technique applied to a schedule that has already been analyzed by the critical path.
Characteristics of Resource Leveling
– Can be used when shared or critical required resources are only available at certain times, are only available in limited quantities, or to keep resource usage at a constant level.
– Is necessary when resources have been over-allocated, when shared or critical required resources are only available at certain times or are only available in limited quantities.
– Can often cause the original critical path to change.
Resource Smoothing
– A technique that adjusts the activities of a schedule model such that the requirements for resources on the project do not exceed certain predefined resource limits.
– Opposite the technique resource leveling.
– The project’s critical path is not changed and the completion date may not be delayed. In other words, activities may only be delayed within their free and total float.
– May not be able to optimize all resources.
Modeling techniques
Examples of modeling techniques:
– What-If Scenario Analysis
– Simulation
– Monte Carlo analysis
What-If Scenario Analysis
An analysis of the question “What if the situation represented by scenario ‘X’ happens?”. A schedule network analysis is performed using the schedule to compute the different scenarios.
Characteristics of What-If Analysis
The outcome of the whatif scenario analysis can be used to assess the feasibility of the project schedule under adverse conditions, and in preparing contingency and response plans to overcome or mitigate the impact of unexpected situations.
Involves calculating multiple project durations with different sets of activity assumptions.
Monte Carlo Analysis
The most common Simulation technique. A distribution of possible activity durations is defined for each activity and used to calculate a distribution of possible outcomes for the total project.
Leads and Lags
– Refinements applied during network analysis to develop a valid schedule.
– Leads are used in limited circumstances to
advance a successor activity with respect to the predecessor activity.
– Lags are used in limited circumstances
where processes require a set period of time to elapse between the predecessors and successors without work or resource impact..
Schedule Compression
Shortens the project schedule without changing the project scope, to meet schedule constraints, imposed dates, or other schedule objectives.
Schedule Compression Techniques
– Crashing
– Fast-tracking
A schedule compression technique in which cost and schedule trade offs are analyzed to determine how to obtain the greatest amount of compression for the least incremental cost.
Characteristics of Crashing
• Only works for activities where additional resources will shorten the duration.
• Doesn’t not always produce a viable alternative and may result in increased risk and/or cost.

• approving overtime,
• bringing in additional resources, or
• paying to expedite delivery to activities on the critical path

Fast Tracking
A schedule compression technique in which phases or activities normally performed in sequence are performed in parallel.
Characteristics of Fast Tracking
• May result in rework and increased risk.
• Only works if activities can be overlapped to shorten the duration.
How to deal with a project with a negative float
The project manager will have to either fast-track or crash the project schedule.
Scheduling Tool
Automated scheduling tools expedite the scheduling process by generating start and finish dates based on the inputs of activities, network diagrams, resources and activity durations. A scheduling tool can be used in conjunction with other project management software applications as well as manual methods.
Outputs (6) of the Develop Schedule process
1 Schedule baseline
2 Project schedule
3 Schedule data
4 Project calendars
5 Project management plan updates
6 Project documents updates
Schedule Baseline
Is a specific version of the project schedule developed from the schedule network analysis. It is accepted and approved by the project management team as the schedule baseline with baseline start dates and baseline finish dates. It is a component of the project management plan.
Project Schedule
Includes a planned start date and planned finish date for each activity.
Characteristics of Project Schedule
– If resource planning is done at an early stage, then the project schedule would remain preliminary until resource assignments have been confirmed and scheduled start and finish dates are established.
– This process usually happens no later than completion of the project management plan.
– A project target schedule may also be developed with a defined target start and target finish for each activity.
– The project schedule may be presented in summary form, sometimes referred to as the master schedule or milestone schedule, or presented in detail.
– Although a project schedule can be presented in tabular form, it is more often presented graphically.
Graphical Formats of the Project Schedule
– Bar charts
– Milestone charts
– Project schedule network diagrams
Bar Charts
These charts, with bars representing activities, show activity start and end dates, as well as expected durations. Bar charts are relatively easy to read, and are frequently used in management presentations.
Hammock Activity
For control and management communication, the broader, more comprehensive summary activity, is used between milestones or across multiple interdependent work packages, and is displayed in barchart reports.
Milestone Charts
These charts are similar to bar charts, but only identify the scheduled start or completion of major deliverables and key external interfaces.
Project Schedule Network Diagrams
These diagrams, with activity date information, usually show both the project network logic and the project’s critical path schedule activities. These diagrams can be presented in the activity-on-node diagram format, or presented in a time-scaled schedule network diagram format that is sometimes called a logic bar chart.
Schedule Data
Includes at least the schedule milestones, schedule activities, activity attributes, and documentation of all identified assumptions and constraints.
Schedule Data Supporting Detail
• Resource requirements by time period, often in the form of a resource histogram.
• Alternative schedules, such as best-case or worst-case, not resource-leveled, or resource leveled, with or without imposed dates.
• Scheduling of contingency reserves.
• could include such items as resource histograms, cash-flow projections, and order and delivery schedules.
Project calendars
– Identifies working days and shifts that are available for scheduled activities
– It distinguishes time periods in days or parts of days that are available to complete scheduled activities from time periods that
are not available.
A schedule model may require more than one project calendar to allow for different work periods for some activities to calculate the project schedule.
-The project calendars may be updated.
Project Management Plan Updates
Elements of the project management plan that may be updated:
– Schedule baseline
– Schedule management plan
Project Document Updates
Project documents that may be updated include:
– Activity resource requirements
– Activity attributes
– Calendar
– Risk register
Activity Resource Requirements
Resource leveling can have a significant effect on preliminary estimates of the types and quantities of resources required. If the resource-leveling analysis changes the project resource requirements, then the project resource requirements are updated.
Activity Attributes
Updated to include any revised resource requirements and any other revisions generated by the Develop Schedule process.
For each project may use different calendar units as the basis for scheduling the project.
Risk Register
May need to be updated to reflect opportunities or threats perceived through scheduling assumptions.
Process: Control Schedule
– The process of monitoring the status of project activities to update project progress and manage changes to the schedule baseline to achieve the plan.
– The key benefit of this process is that it provides
the means to recognize deviation from the plan and take corrective and preventive actions and thus minimize risk.
Purpose of Control Schedule
– Determining the current status of the project schedule.
– Influencing the factors that create schedule changes.
– Determining that the project schedule has changed.
– Managing the actual changes as they occur.
Inputs (6) of the Control Schedule process
1 Project management plan
2 Project schedule
3 Work performance data
4 Project calendars
5 Schedule data
6 Organizational process assets
Project Management Plan
– Contains the schedule management plan and the schedule baseline.
– The schedule management plan describes how the schedule will be managed and controlled.
– The schedule baseline is used to compare with actual results to determine if a chance, corrective action, or preventative action is necessary.
Project Schedule
– The most recent version of the project schedule with notations to indicate updates, completed activities, and started activities as of the indicated data date.
Work performance data
– Information about project progress, such as which activities have started, their progress, and which activities have finished.
Project calendars
A schedule model may require more than one project calendar to allow for different work periods for some activities to calculate the schedule forecasts.
Schedule data
Will be reviewed and updated in the Control Schedule process.
Organizational Process Assets
– Existing formal and informal schedule control-related policies, procedures and guidelines
– Schedule control tools
– Monitoring and reporting methods to be used
Tools & Techniques (7) for Control Schedule process
1 Performance reviews
2 Project management software
3 Resource optimization techniques
4 Modeling techniques
5 Leads and lags
6 Schedule compression
7 Scheduling tool
Performance Reviews
Measure, compare, and analyze schedule performance such as actual start and finish dates, percent complete, and remaining duration for work in progress.
Techniques of Performance Reviews
– Trend analysis
– Critical path method
– Critical Chain method
– Earned Value Management (EVM)
Trend analysis
Examines project performance over time to determine whether performance is improving or deteriorating. Graphical analysis techniques are valuable for understanding performance to date and for comparison to future performance goals in the form of completion dates.
Critical path method
Comparing the progress along the critical path can help determine schedule status. The variance on the critical path will have a direct impact on the project end date. Evaluating the progress of activities on near critical paths can identify schedule risk.
Critical Chain method
Comparing the amount of buffer remaining to the amount of buffer needed to protect the delivery date can help determine schedule status. The difference between the buffer needed and the buffer remaining can determine whether corrective action is appropriate.
Earned Value Management (EVM)
– Earned Value Management utilized the schedule variance(SV) and schedule performance index (SPI).
– An important part of schedule control is to decide if the schedule variation requires corrective action.
Variance Analysis
– Schedule performance measurements (SV – schedule variance, SPI – schedule performance inde) are used to assess the magnitude of variation to the original schedule baseline.
– The total float variance is also an essential planning component to evaluate project time performance.
– Important aspects of project schedule control include determining the cause and degree of variance relative to the schedule Baseline and deciding whether corrective or preventive action is required.
Earned Value Management
Schedule Variance
Schedule Performance Index
Project Management Software
Project management software for scheduling provides the ability to track planned dates versus actual dates, and to forecast the effects of changes to the project schedule.
Resource optimization techniques
Involve the scheduling of activities and the
resources required by those activities while taking into consideration both the resource availability and the project time.
Modeling Techniques
Used to review various scenarios guided by risk monitoring to bring the schedule model into alignment with the project management plan and approved baseline.
Leads and Lags
Used to find ways to bring project activities that are behind into alignment with the plan.
Schedule Compression
Used to find ways to bring project activities that are behind into alignment with the plan.
Scheduling Tool
– Schedule data is updated and compiled into the schedule to reflect actual progress of the project and remaining work to be completed.
– The scheduling tool and the supporting schedule data are used in conjunction with manual methods or other project management software to perform schedule network analysis to generate an updated project schedule.
Outputs (6) of the Control Schedule process
1 Work performance information
2 Schedule forecasts
3 Change requests
4 Project management plan updates
5 Project documents updates
6 Organizational process assets updates
Work performance information
The calculated SV and SPI values for WBS components, in particular the work packages and control accounts, are documented and communicated to stakeholders.
Schedule forecasts
– They are estimates or predictions of conditions and events in the project’s future based on
information and knowledge available at the time of the forecast.
– Forecasts are updated and reissued based on
work performance information provided as the project is executed.
– The information is based on the project’s past
performance and expected future performance, and includes earned value performance indicators that could impact the project in the future.
Change Requests
– Schedule variance analysis, along with review of progress reports, results of performance measures, and modifications to the project schedule can result in change requests to the schedule baseline and/or to other components of the project management plan.
– Change requests are processed for review and disposition through the Perform Integrated Change Control process.
– Preventive actions may include recommended changes to reduce the probability of negative schedule variances.
Project Management Plan Updates
Elements can be updated:
– Schedule baseline
– Schedule management plan
– Cost baseline
Schedule Baseline
Changes to the schedule baseline are incorporated in response to approved change requests related to project scope changes, activity resources, or activity duration estimates.
Schedule Management Plan
May be updated to reflect a change in the way the schedule is managed.
Cost Baseline
May be updated to reflect changes caused by compression or crashing techniques.
Project Document Updates
Project documents can be uptaded:
– Schedule data
– Project schedule
– Risk Register
Schedule Data
New project schedule network diagrams may be developed to display approved remaining durations and modifications to the work plan. In some cases, project schedule delays can be so severe that development of a new target schedule with forecasted start and finish dates is needed to provide realistic data for directing the work, and for measuring performance and progress.
Project Schedule
An updated project schedule will be generated from the updated schedule data to reflect the schedule changes and manage the project.
Risk Register
The risk register, and risk response plans within it, may also be updated based on the risks
that may arise due to schedule compression techniques.
Organizational Process Assets Updates
Factors can be:
– Causes of variances,
– Corrective action chosen and the reasons, and
– Other types of lessons learned from project schedule control
All baselines and plans are a part of
the project management plan
Plan Schedule Management
Define Activities
Sequence Activities
Estimate Activity Resources
Estimate Activity Durations
Develop Schedule
Planning Process Group
Control Schedule
Monitoring and Controlling Process Group
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