Physical Science: Chemistry Final Exam

independent variable
goes on the x-axis
dependent variable
goes on the y-axis
hypothesis
A prediction that can be tested by experimentation
variable
variable you can change
control of the experiment
variable that you keep the same
mass
amount of matter
units mass can be recorded in
grams and kilograms
what measuring devices are used to determine mass?
triple beam balance and spring scale
volume
amount of space matter takes up
units volume can be recorded in
millimeters-liquid and centimeters squared-solid
what measuring devices are used to determine volume?
graduated cylinder, beaker, ruler
Properties of plasma
-gas mixture with no definite shape or volume
-made of (+) and (-) charged particles
-most abundant in Universe but not on Earth
solid
has volume and shape
liquid
has volume but no shape
gas
has no volume or shape
meniscus
curved formed by liquid in tube
measuring the meniscus?
bottom of graduated cylinder
vaporization and evaporation
liquid->gas
condensation
gas->liquid
conduction
transfer of heat between touching objects/atoms
convection
transfer of heat in currents
radiation
transfer of heat by EM waves
specific heat
when heat flows it raises the temp. of some substances more than others.
heat
flow of thermal energy from warmer objects to cooler objects
molecular make-up of material that is a good conductor
tightly packed atoms (with loose electrons)
3 examples of good thermal conductors
aluminum, metals, tightly packed molecules
3 examples of good thermal insulators
air pockets, foam, rubber
freezing point of water in Celsius
0*C
boiling point of water in Celsius
100*C
freezing point of water in Fahrenheit
32*F
boiling point of water in Fahrenheit
212*F
building blocks of matter
atoms and molecules
strong nuclear force
force that holds neutrons and protons together
atomic number
same as the proton
proton
determines identity of atom
mass number
total number of neutrons and protons in the nucleus
isotope
same element with different number of neutrons
valance electrons
the elements in an atom that are involved in the formation of chemical bonds
dot diagram
diagram used to show the valance electrons of an atom
electron cloud
where electrons are found
Halogens
Group 17
Alkali metals
Group 1
-most reactants
Alkaline Earth Metals
Group 2
Noble Gases
Group 18
Bohr
electrons in fixed orbit around nucleus
Dadlton
atomic theory
Rutherford
aluminum foil-dense (+)
ionic bonds
-form between metal(loses electron and non-metal(gains)
-electron are transferred
covalent bonds
-form between two non-metal
-electrons are shared
Diatomic molecule
molecule that has two atoms of the same element
Unique about carbon?
in living things, forms long chains
oxidation number
tells you how many and atom must gain, lose, or share
What 2 elements don’t need 8 valance electrons
Hydrogen and Helium
reactants
located on the left side of the arrow
products
located on the right side of the arrow
Law of Conservation of Mass
Amount of Reactants+Amount of Products
physical Property
Observe with senses and determined without destroying it
chemical Property
Indicate how a substance reacts with something else
endothermic
heat energy must be added for experiment to take place
exothermic
heat energy is released
what two products form from a neutralization reaction?
salt and water
acids
-0 to 6
-sour taste
bases
-8 to 14
-bitter taste and slippery
Fusion
sun (combing nuclei)
Fission
nuclear power plant (breaking of nuclei)
Nuclear decay occurs because?
strong nuclear force breaks down
Carbon-14 used for?
dating fossils/bones
long term exposure to radiation is know to cause?
cancer