Physical Science: Chemistry Final Exam

independent variable
goes on the x-axis

dependent variable
goes on the y-axis

hypothesis
A prediction that can be tested by experimentation

variable
variable you can change

control of the experiment
variable that you keep the same

mass
amount of matter

units mass can be recorded in
grams and kilograms

what measuring devices are used to determine mass?
triple beam balance and spring scale

volume
amount of space matter takes up

units volume can be recorded in
millimeters-liquid and centimeters squared-solid

what measuring devices are used to determine volume?
graduated cylinder, beaker, ruler

Properties of plasma
-gas mixture with no definite shape or volume
-made of (+) and (-) charged particles
-most abundant in Universe but not on Earth

solid
has volume and shape

liquid
has volume but no shape

gas
has no volume or shape

meniscus
curved formed by liquid in tube

measuring the meniscus?
bottom of graduated cylinder

vaporization and evaporation
liquid->gas

condensation
gas->liquid

conduction
transfer of heat between touching objects/atoms

convection
transfer of heat in currents

radiation
transfer of heat by EM waves

specific heat
when heat flows it raises the temp. of some substances more than others.

heat
flow of thermal energy from warmer objects to cooler objects

molecular make-up of material that is a good conductor
tightly packed atoms (with loose electrons)

3 examples of good thermal conductors
aluminum, metals, tightly packed molecules

3 examples of good thermal insulators
air pockets, foam, rubber

freezing point of water in Celsius
0*C

boiling point of water in Celsius
100*C

freezing point of water in Fahrenheit
32*F

boiling point of water in Fahrenheit
212*F

building blocks of matter
atoms and molecules

strong nuclear force
force that holds neutrons and protons together

atomic number
same as the proton

proton
determines identity of atom

mass number
total number of neutrons and protons in the nucleus

isotope
same element with different number of neutrons

valance electrons
the elements in an atom that are involved in the formation of chemical bonds

dot diagram
diagram used to show the valance electrons of an atom

electron cloud
where electrons are found

Halogens
Group 17

Alkali metals
Group 1
-most reactants

Alkaline Earth Metals
Group 2

Noble Gases
Group 18

Bohr
electrons in fixed orbit around nucleus

Dadlton
atomic theory

Rutherford
aluminum foil-dense (+)

ionic bonds
-form between metal(loses electron and non-metal(gains)
-electron are transferred

covalent bonds
-form between two non-metal
-electrons are shared

Diatomic molecule
molecule that has two atoms of the same element

Unique about carbon?
in living things, forms long chains

oxidation number
tells you how many and atom must gain, lose, or share

What 2 elements don’t need 8 valance electrons
Hydrogen and Helium

reactants
located on the left side of the arrow

products
located on the right side of the arrow

Law of Conservation of Mass
Amount of Reactants+Amount of Products

physical Property
Observe with senses and determined without destroying it

chemical Property
Indicate how a substance reacts with something else

endothermic
heat energy must be added for experiment to take place

exothermic
heat energy is released

what two products form from a neutralization reaction?
salt and water

acids
-0 to 6
-sour taste

bases
-8 to 14
-bitter taste and slippery

Fusion
sun (combing nuclei)

Fission
nuclear power plant (breaking of nuclei)

Nuclear decay occurs because?
strong nuclear force breaks down

Carbon-14 used for?
dating fossils/bones

long term exposure to radiation is know to cause?
cancer

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