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phon/artic – class 9 – phonemic therapy approaches Essay

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What are the approaches to phonemic therapy?
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1. minimal pairs 2. maximal pairs 3. multiple opposition 4. metaphon 5. metaphonology 6. cycles 7. language-based
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What is another name for minimal pairs therapy?
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minimal opposition contrast therapy
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What kind of words are used for minimal pairs?
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Words that differ by one phoneme only
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Why are minimal pairs used?
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To establish contrasts not present in the phonological system
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When using minimal pairs, should the child be stimulable for the correct sound?
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Yes
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What is the procedure for minimal pairs?
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1. Have child say both words in pair 2. Show communicative confusion if words are said the same 3. Use objects that can be manipulated
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What is another name for maximal pairs?
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maximal oppositions therapy
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What kind of words are used for maximal pairs?
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Word pairs that have multiple feature contrasts
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How can features differ in maximal pairs?
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Place, manner, voicing
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How many sounds are contrasted for maximal pairs?
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Only 2
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What is compared with maximal pairs?
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A sound the child correctly produces is compared to a maximally different one
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What is compared with minimal pairs?
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A sound the child produces in an incorrect position with the sound that should occur in that position
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What is the multiple oppositions approach?
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Similar to minimal pairs, but pairs all or most errors simultaneously
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Who is a multiple oppositions approach good for?
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Children who substitute a single sound for multiple sounds
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What is the metaphon approach?
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A 2 phase approach that focuses on phonological awareness
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What is the purpose of phase 1 of the metaphon approach?
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Capture child’s interest in entire sound system
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What does the child do in phase 1 of the metaphon apprach?
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Listen
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What are the 4 levels of phase 1 of the metaphon approach?
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1. concept 2. sound 3. phoneme 4. word
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What is the purpose of phase 2 of the metaphon approach?
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Develop communicative awareness
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What is done in phase 2 of the metaphon approach?
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Clinician and child take turns producing minimal pairs
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What is metaphonological intervention?
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Intervention to enhance early phoneme awareness and letter knowledge combined with intervention to improve intelligibility
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What is the purpose of metaphonological intervention?
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Ensure that children with SSD approach literacy instruction with age-appropriate phonological awareness
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What are some metaphonological activities?
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blending, segmenting, letter-name knowledge, phoneme manipulation
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What is the cycles approach?
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– Patterns are trained successively – No specific level of mastery is necessary to move on to the next pattern – Several sounds in a pattern are worked on in each cycle
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Who developed the cycles approach?
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Hodson and Paden in 1983
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What kind of children most benefit from the cycles approach?
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Highly unintelligible children
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What is the modified cycles approach?
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– A cycle is 3 weeks, probe at end – One pattern is worked on each week – 2 training sounds per pattern – emphasis on eliciting numerous correct productions in 5-10 carefully selected words
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Who developed the modified cycles approach?
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Ann Tyler
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What determines how sounds are used in successive cycles?
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– if sounds 50% correct, use in sentences
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How can language be integrated into a cycles approach?
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Language for one cycle, phonology for the next
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What are the 7 components of treatment to enhance stimulability?
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1. determine stimulability 2. directly target non-stimulable sounds 3. make targets the focus of joint attention 4. associate speech sounds with hand/body motions 5. associate speech sounds with alliterative characters of interest to the child 6. encourage vocal practice (not drill) 7. ensure early success
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What is PACT (Parents and Children Together)?
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– eclectic approach that takes into account phonemic, phonetic, and auditory perceptual factors – contains procedures common to minimal pairs, cycles, and metaphon but within family-centered framework
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What are the 5 components of PACT?
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1. parent education 2. metalinguistic training 3. phonetic production training 4. multiple exemplar training 5. homework
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What is SAILS (Speech Assessment and Interactive Learning System)?
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– computer based program for perceptual training
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What are the different goal attack strategies?
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1. vertical 2. horizontal 3. cyclical
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What is the vertical goal attack strategy?
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One specific sound is worked on one at a time until criteria
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What is an example of a method that uses a vertical goal attack strategy?
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Van Riper
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What is a horizontal goal attack strategy?
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More than one goal is treated simultaneously, more than one sound within a pattern is worked on at a time
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What are the principles of phonological therapy?
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1. treatment based on thorough phonological assessment 2. treatment based on regularities in production patterns 3. treatment aimed at communicative reorganization 4. treatment builds up a system of contrasts 5. treatment uses natural class of contrastive phones and structures
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What are the different therapy types?
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– drill – drill-play – structured play – play
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What therapy type is the most effective?
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drill-play
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What are the types of generalization?
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1. stimulus generalization 2. response generalization
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What is stimulus generalization?
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Speech behaviors learned in response to certain therapy stimuli are produced in the presence of novel, untrained stimuli
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What is response generalization?
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A sound learned in one word position or phonetic context is produced in another. Practice of one sound in a class improves other sounds in that class.
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What kind of approach is Miccio’s enhancing stimulability?
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Between phonetic and phonemic
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What kind of child can benefit from an enhancing stimulability approach?
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Those with a limited phonetic inventory
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What are the elements of Miccio’s enhancing stimulability approach?
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Concept, movement, icon. Pairing sounds with alliterative characters and motions.