Philosophy Final Exam Essay Questions

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Compare Heraclitus, Parmenidies, Epicurus, Plato, and Aristotle on the nature of reality.
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Heraclitus= Heraclitus said that life is like a river. The peaks and troughs, pits and swirls, are all are part of the ride. Like a river, nature flows ever onward. Even the nature of the flow changes. We can’t step into the same river twice. This is because the river is constantly changing. (Changing, Many)* SIMILAR to Epicures= Believes that that reality is always changing as well. He believes in the swerve and how it is up to chance that at random an atom that is falling in the void will hit another breaking the fate and constantly changing. Parmenidies= Nothing can change. A being is a being. He believes that everything is part of a single unified and unchanging whole. All apparent change is merely illusion. (EVERYTHING is) SIMILAR to Plato= Splits the world into two realms. Believes through the realm of forms through the mind. By detaching ourselves from the material world and our bodies and developing our ability to concern ourselves with the forms, we find a value which is not open to change or disintegration. Aristotle= Middle Ground. Form and matter. Some things stay the same and dont change. -Accidental Change- Tan to pale -Substantial change- Grass to cow (one thing to another.
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Discuss the parallels and differences in the accounts of human nature found in Epicurus, Plato, Descartes, and Hume.
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Hume=There are no innate Ideas all are ideas come from our Sense experiences. Which generates two different types of reason. Relation of Ideas=Math, Matter of Effect= Science Common Sense. Believes that origin of ideas are from Impressions. Ideas are faint copies of impressions. (Based off of habit and instinct). SIMILAR to Epicurus= He believes in empirical evidence and logic, and he propounded the scientific view of atomism, according to which all facts in the macroscopic world are caused by the configuration of atoms or indivisible elements in the microscopic world. Plato=Recollection. Understand equality because we have seen it before in before live. soul is immortal. At one time are soul looked at a world of form. All knowledge is innate. SIMILIAR= All knowledge is innate. Mathematics is innate (Real).
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Compare and Contrast the arguments for the existence of God found in Augustin, Anselm, Aquinas, and Descartes.
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Agustin= Basic Proofs. Judge by a standered that is above the mind. 2+2=4 This is true and everyone knows it but its above the mind. God is the one above the mind and he believes in Divine illumination= the truth is acting in us. Anselm= Famous proof P1 God=Something than which nothing grater can be thought. P2 Is it greater to exist in thought and reality then just thought. Therefore= God exists in thought and reality. -Believes that God is not limited to any power or knowledge. God as the greatest being implies that God exists—if not, there could be something greater, namely an existent greatest being. Guinolos objection Perfect Island. Aquinas= Gods existence is shown in Aquines 123 Proofs. Negative theology- God is not caused. He is the first cause. Creates motion. -First cause in the theioers of necessary being -There is motion in the world. Potential to actual (this requires a cause Unmoved Mover, Pure actuality) -Guides things by a understanding being. Descartes= Believes that his mind is to complex and cant be created by him because its more perfect then him so its created by a higher power god. Descartes’ ontological argument goes as follows: (1) Our idea of God is of a perfect being, (2) it is more perfect to exist than not to exist, (3) therefore, God must exist.
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Compare and contrast Plato, Augustine, Aquinas, Descartes, and Hume on how we come to know.
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Plato= Recollection. knowledge by remembering innate knowledge hidden in their soul by experience. and knowledge from a previous life because your soul is separate from the body. Augustine= Divine illumination. That knowledge is enlightened by God. An intellectual light. Human beings require a special divine assistance with an active intellect participants with god. Aquines= Abstraction. Similar to Augustine. A body and soul work together to learn knowledge. Uses passive (Intellectual soul, becomes all things) and active intellect (Light). 3 levels of knowledge Physical world, mathematics, first mover. Descartes= Deduction. All ideas are innate. Believes humans are just things that think. Used the method of doubt. Hume= Impressions. All ideas come from the senses. (External senses, feelings) Believes that Ideas are copies of impressions. If an idea doesn’t not come from an impression it is meaningless. Two ways of reason Relation of Ideas=Math, Matter of Effect= Science Common Sense. (Come from sense experience
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Compare and contrast Plato, Augustine, Hume, and Nietzsche on the reality of time
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Plato=Focus on the things that are not Unchanging. Time is barely real. He is not interested in looking at time and history. Augustine= Confessions. -God created the earth. There was no time before the creation of the earth. -Cant analysis time. But know what to say in a sentence in the future (Somewhat of Gods Entity). Past is a memory- Remember Present is very short- Attend Future-expect God sees all time at once Hume= Believes that atoms change the time, it is fragmented. Time is separated into parts. People are accumulated parts of time. SIMILAR to Nietzsche= No reality of time, No freedom of choose. You are just are. Atoms have fate. All there are are accidents and Chance. Time is important to make a decision if you dont then you have made a decision.
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Consider the parallels and the differences between Aristotle, Augustine, Hume, and Kierkegaard on the importance of the human individual.
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Aristotle= Find Happiness (Virtues=Cardinal Virtues Wisdom, Justice, Moderation, Bravery) Absolute principles always do good never do evil. Matters and haves responsibility. Should live this way. Augustine=Believes in freedom. Self has thought and knowledge Kierkegard= Believes in freedom. Talking about an individual is freedom. Hume= No freedom or free will. Instinct
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It is a challenge to philosophy to understand the compatibility of human freedom and divine providence (Foreknowledge). Discuss the positions of Epicurus, Augustine, and Aquinas on this topic.
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Epicurus- Doesn’t believe in providence and doesnt believe in freedom at all. He is a materialists (Substance in nature have material interactions). Swerve (Chance). Augustine=To deny your own freedom is to be in contradiction with yourself. Middle good which is free will. Believes that you must create your happiness. The way you judge anything is an act of freedom. SIMILIAR Aquinas= To deny free will is a life of imoral. 1.)inanimate=no free will 2.) animate=Some what free will 3.)Human being=Free Will Believes that free will and use of passive and active intellect are entwined.
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The so called \”problem of evil\” has inspired a good deal of discussion among philosophers. Discuses how epicures, Augustine, and aquines deal with this challenging puzzle.
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Problem of evil= -God is all powerful -God is all good -There is evil in the world. Epicures= The gods do not care about humans. It is up to chance. that a god that is all-powerful and all-good does not exist and that the gods are distant and uninvolved with man’s concerns. The gods are neither our friends nor enemies. There is no evil. Things just happen for the sake of happening and people are just doing what they should be doing. Augustine= God does not have a duty to us. If there is a wrong action it has been done freely. 2 points of evil: 1.) Physical evil 2.) Moral evil= Takes faith in God Believes by being independent from god is doing evil. God is the source of all good things. Aquines=Physical evil shown in animals. Kind of bad somethings good. Lion is feed. Moral evil=its a mystery but its up to faith to believe god has a plan for it.

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