persuasive

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Credibility
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which Aristotle referred to as ethos, is the audience’s perception of a speaker’s competence, trustworthiness, and dynamism.
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Explain the difference between passive agreement and immediate action as goals for persuasive speeches on questions of policy?
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PASSIVE AGREEMENT – goal is to convince the audience that a given policy is desirable without encouraging the audience to take action in support of the policy. IMMEDIATE ACTION – goal is to convince the audience to take action in support of a given policy
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Competence
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You show competence by being informed, skilled, or knowledgeable about your subject. One way to enhance your competence is to cite credible evidence to support your point.
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What are the differences among initial credibility, derived credibility, and terminal credibility?
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INITIAL – Credibility of the speaker before she or he starts to speak. DERIVED – Credibility produced by everything said and done during the speech. TERMINAL – Credibility at the end of the speech
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Trustworthiness.
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While delivering your speech, demonstrate your trustworthiness by conveying honesty and sincerity. One way to earn the audience’s trust is by demonstrating that you have had experience dealing with the issues you talk about. Your sincerity may be suspect, however, if you advocate something that will result in a direct benefit to you.❯
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Dynamism.
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You project dynamism, or energy, through your delivery. Charisma is a form of dynamism. A charismatic person possesses charm, talent,
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Initial credibility Derived CredibilityDerived credibility is the perception of your credibility that listeners form as you present yourself and your message. These strategies can enhance your derived credibility:❯ Establish common ground with listeners by indicating in your opening remarks that you share their values and concerns.❯ Support your arguments and conclusions with evidence.❯ Present a logically organized, well-delivered message. Using appropriate internal summaries, signposts, and enumeration of key ideas can enhance your credibility as a competent and rational advocate.terminal CredibilityThe last phase of credibility, called terminal credibility, is the perception that listeners have of your credibility when you finish your speech. Continue to make eye contact. Don’t leave the lectern or speaking area until you have finished your closing sentence. Even if there is no planned question-and-answer period following
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is the impression of your credibility that listeners have even before you speak. Give careful thought to your appearance, and establish eye contact before you begin your talk. Prepare a brief description of your credentials and accomplishments so that the person who introduces you can use it in his or her introductory remarks.
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motivated sequences
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5steps: attention, need, satisfaction, visualization, action
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need
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arouse dissonace-why topic should concern listeners and convince need for change and that the needs affect directly them
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satisfaction
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identify the solution-satisfy need-give understanding
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visualization,
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positive- how wonderful your proposal is negative- how aweful things would be if not adopted
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action
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give audeince clear step by step direction on how to implement need
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Employ effective techniques of using emotional appeal in a persuasive speech
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Speakers can evoke persuasive levels of pleasure, arousal, and dominance among listeners by using examples, emotion-arousing words, nonverbal behavior, shared myths, and selected appeals to fear and other emotions.
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using principles of logic and evidence to develop persuasive speech
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Three general types of reasoning are inductive, which includes reasoning by analogy and by sign, deductive, and causal. Evidence includes facts, examples, opinions, and statistics.
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Identify and use strategies for effectively organizing a persuasive speech.
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Four patterns for organizing a persuasive speech are problem-solution, refutation, cause-and-effect, and the motivated sequence.
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Identify and use strategies to improve your initial, derived, and terminal credibility.
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Your competence, trustworthiness, and dynamism contribute to your credibility before, during, and after you speak.
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To enhance accurate understanding or correct a misconception, experienced speakers use a four-part strategy
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1. Summarize the common misconceptions about the issue or idea you are discussing. 2. State why these misconceptions may seem reasonable. 3. Dismiss the misconceptions. Provide evidence to support your point; you need sound and credible data to be persuasive. 4. State the accurate information that you want your audience to remember. With a clear summary statement, reinforce the conclusion you want your listeners to draw from the information you presented.
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goals of persuasive speech
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change or reinforce attitusdes, beliefs, values or behavior
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Explain classic and contemporary theories of how persuasion occurs
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Aristotle suggested using ethos, logos, and pathos to persuade. The elaboration likelihood model suggests that listeners either follow a direct route to persuasion, in which they elaborate (think about) the issues and evidence, or an indirect route, in which they don’t elaborate.
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Describe four ways to motivate listeners to respond to a persuasive message
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.Persuasive speakers can motivate listeners through cognitive dissonance, satisfying listeners’ needs, positive motivational appeals, or fear appeals
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Prepare and present an audience-centered persuasive speech.
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.You can apply principles of persuasion at all steps in the audience-centered speechmaking process.
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social judgement theory
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suggest listeners will come to your speech with one of three positions: (1) a latitude of acceptance, in which they generally agree with you; (2) a latitude of rejection, in which they disagree; or (3) a latitude of noncommitment, in which they are not yet committed.7 If most of your listeners are in the latitude of rejection, it will be difficult to move them to the latitude of acceptance in a single speech. A more realistic goal might be to make them less certain of their rejection.
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If most of your listeners are in the latitude of rejection,
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it will be difficult to move them to the latitude of acceptance in a single speech. A more realistic goal might be to make them less certain of their rejection.
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attitude
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learned predisposition to respond favorably or unfavorably toward something attitudes (likes or dislikes) easier to change
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belief
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understand true/false
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value
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right or wrong
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2 approaches to persuasion
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ELM and aristotle ELM classic approach-how listeners process info they hear aristotle-what speaker should do to influence
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elaborate
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think about info, ideas, issues related to content of message
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motivation
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underlying internal force that drives us to achieve goals
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cognitive dissonance
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presented with info inconsistent with current attitudes, beliefs, and experience discomfort
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deductive reasoning
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reasoning from a general statement or principle to reach a specific conclusion
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Maslow’s hierarchy-def
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Maslow’s hierarchy provides a useful checklist of potential listener motivations that a persuasive speaker can activate in order to change or reinforce attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior.
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Maslow’s hierarchy-stages
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1Physiological Needs 2 Safety Needs 3. Social Needs 4. Self-esteem 5. self actualization
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1Physiological Needs 2 Safety Needs 3. Social Needs 4. Self-esteem 5. self actualization
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1 The most basic needs for all humans are physiological: We all need air, water, and food. According to Maslow’s theory, unless those needs are met, it will be difficult to motivate a listener to satisfy other needs. Try to ensure that listeners are physically comfortable before making appeals based on higher-level needs. 2Once basic physiological needs are met, listeners are concerned about their safety. We all need to feel safe, secure, and protected. Persuasive speakers often appeal to our need to provide for our own and our loved ones’ safety. 3. Social Needs We all need to feel loved and valued. We need contact with others and reassurance that they care about us. According to Maslow, these social needs translate into our need for a sense of belonging to a group (a fraternity, a religious organization, a circle of friends). Powerful persuasive appeals are based on our need for social contact. 4. reflects our desire to think well of ourselves 5. need to full realize ones highest potential addressed only after other four are met
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What are the THREE basic issues you must deal with when discussing a question of policy?
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1) Need – is there an actual need for the policy. 2) Plan – does the speaker have a plan to solve the problem. 3) Practicality – will the plan solve the problem
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fallacy
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false reasoning that occurs when someone attempts to persuade without adequate evidence or with arguments that are irrelevant
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Use emotion to Persuade•
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Use concrete examples that help your listeners visualize what you describe.•Use emotion-arousing words.•Use nonverbal behavior to communicate your emotional message.•Use visual images to evoke emotions.•Use appropriate metaphors and similes.•Use appropriate fear appeals.•Consider using appeals to several emotions, including hope, pride, courage, and reverence.
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analogical reasoning
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comparing two similar objects, processes, concepts, or events and suggesting that what holds true for one also holds true for another
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1false dilemma 2begging the question 3slippery-slope 4ad ignorantiam 5red herring 6comparative evidence 7ad populum 8appeal to tradition 9division 10hasty generalization 11post hoc 12weak analogy 13ad hominem 14guilt by association 15straw man 16loaded word
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1fallacy in claims; speaker reduces choices to only two even though others exist (either-or fallacy) 2fallacy in claims; uses a premise to imply the truth of the conclusion or asserts that it is evident (circular reasoning) 3fallacyin claims; one event will necessarily lead to another without showing any logical connection between the two events 4fallacy in claims; hasn’t been proven false, must be true 5fallacy in evidence; introduces irrelevant evidence to distract an audience from the real issue 6fallacy in evidence; uses stats or numbers that misrepresent the evidence and mislead the audience 7fallacy in evidence; appeals to popular attitudes and emotions without evidence supporting the claims (bandwagon) 8fallacy in evidence; status quo is better than any new ideas 9fallacy in reasoning; what is true of the whole must be true of the parts 10fallacy in reasoning; draws conclusion based on too few or inadequate examples; what is true of the few must be true of the whole 11fallacy in reasoning; (false cause) causal relationship exists simply because one event follows another in time 12fallacy in reasoning; compares two dissimilar things and making an inaccurate comparison 13fallacy in responding; (against the person) rejects another speaker’s claim based on that speaker’s character rather than the evidence he presents 14fallacy in responding; (bad company) another speaker associates the speaker with someone the audience finds objectionable 15fallacy in responding; speaker misrepresents another speaker’s argument so that only the shell of the opponent’s argument remains 16fallacy in responding; emotionally laiden words to evaluate claims
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emotional response theory
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emotional responses vary among 3 dimensions, pleasure, arousal, and dominance
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Detail the steps that groups use to solve problems with reflective thinking. styles of leadership.
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To solve problems, groups must (1) identify and define the problem, (2) analyze the problem, (3) generate possible solutions, (4) select the best solution, and (5) test and implement the solution.
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3. Describe common roles and styles of leadership
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.Group members often share leadership responsibility to help groups accomplish tasks and maintain a healthy social climate. Styles of leadership include authoritarian, democratic, laissez-faire, and transformational.
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4. Identify key steps in planning and making a group presentation.
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…Group presentations rely on the same principles of audience-centered speaking as individual speeches, but also require a coordinated team effort.
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Delivering a presentation speech is an important responsibility—one that has several distinct components.
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…refer to the Occasion Awards are often given to mark the anniversary of a special event, the completion of a long-range task, the accomplishments of a lifetime, or high achievement in some field.
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talk about the history and Significance of the award
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… This section of the speech may be fairly long if the audience knows little about the award; it will be brief if the audience already knows the history and purpose of the award. Whatever the award, a discussion of its significance will add to its meaning for the person who receives it.
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Malapropism
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is the mistaken use of a word that sounds much like the intended word—destruction for instruction, for example
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spoonerisms
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when someone switches the initial sounds of words in a single phrase like sublic peaking
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puns
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double meaning to create humor
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hyperbole
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exaggeration
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wit
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an incident that takes an unexpected turn
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What are forms of faulty reasoning’s?
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1. Causal fallacy 2. Bandwagon fallacy 3. either/or fallacy 4. Hasty generalization- conclusion from too little evidence 5. Ad Hominem- attacking irrelevant personal characteristics of someone proposing an idea rather than attacking the idea 6. Red herring – faulty facts 7. Appeal to misplaced authority- authority given to wrong guy in a field they are not an expert, like a pro baseball player talking about basketball 8. Non sequitur- evidence has nothing to do with the problem
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What are some tips for using emotion to persuade?
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What are some tips for using emotion to persuade? 1.use concrete examples that help your listener to visualize what you describe 2. Use emotion arousing words 3. Use nonverbal behavior to communicate your emotional response 4. Use visual images to evoke emotion 5. Use appropriate metaphors and similes 6. Use appropriate fear appeals 7. Consider using appeals to several emotions 8. Tap audiences beliefs in shared myths
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How can you persuade the receptive audience?
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How can you persuade the receptive audience? 1. Identify with audience 2. Clearly state your speaking objectives 3. Tell your audience exactly what you want them to do 4. Ask listeners for immediate show of support 5. Use emotional appeal effectively 6. Make it easy for your listeners to act
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How can you persuade the neutral audience?
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How can you persuade the neutral audience? 1. Capture listener’s attention early in the speech 2. Refer to beliefs that many listeners share 3. Relate your topic not only to your listeners, but also their families, friends and loved ones 4. Be realistic about what you can accomplish
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strategies to improve initial derivaed and terminal credibility
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competence, trustworthiness, dynamism before during and after speech
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how to use refutation
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Identify objections to your position that your listeners might raise and then refute those objections with arguments and evidence
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What evidence do you need for the deductive reasoning strategy?
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Evidence to document the truth of your initial generalization
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What evidence do you need for the causal reasoning strategy?
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What evidence do you need for the causal reasoning strategy? Evidence is vital to show what caused an effect
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What is initial credibility?
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What is initial credibility? Impression of your credibility that your listeners have before you speak
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What is terminal credibility?
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What is terminal credibility? The way your audience sees you after your speech is over
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What is derived credibility? How can you get derived credibility?
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What is derived credibility? Credibility your audience gives you after you present yourself and they meet you and hear your message How can you get derived credibility? Establish common ground, provide evidence, be well organized, and a good delivery
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Identify THREE methods you can use to generate emotional appeal in your speeches?
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1) Use Emotional Language. 2) Develop Vivid Examples. 3) Speak with Sincerity and Conviction What are the THREE purposes of a speech of introduction? 1) Build enthusiasm for the upcoming speaker. 2) Build enthusiasm for the speaker’s topic. 3) Establish a welcoming climate that will boost the speaker’s credibility.
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What are the THREE purposes of a speech of introduction?
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1) Build enthusiasm for the upcoming speaker. 2) Build enthusiasm for the speaker’s topic. 3) Establish a welcoming climate that will boost the speaker’s credibility.
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What guidelines should you follow in preparing a speech of introduction?
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Be brief. Make sure your remarks are completely accurate. Adapt your remarks to the occasion. Adapt your remarks to the main speaker. Adapt your remarks to the audience. Try to create a sense of anticipation and drama.
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What is the main theme of a speech of presentation?
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To tell the audience why the recipient is receiving the award. Point out his/her contributions, achievements, and so forth.
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Depending on the audience and occasion, what TWO other themes might you include in a speech of presentation?
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1) Explain the award to the audience. 2) If the award was won in a competition, praise the losers.
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What are the THREE major traits of a good acceptance speech?
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Brevity, humility, and graciousness
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Why does a successful commemorative speech depend so much on the creative and subtle use of language?
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When speaking you want to express feelings, to stir sentiments
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What is a small group?
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A collection of three to twelve people who assemble for a specific purpose
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What are the FOUR kinds of leadership that may occur in a small group?
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1) No specific leader. 2) Implied Leader. 3) Emergent Leader. 4) Designated Leader
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What are the THREE kinds of needs fulfilled by leadership in a small group?
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1) Procedural Needs. 2) Task Needs. 3) Maintenance Needs
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What are the FIVE major responsibilities of every participant in a small group?
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1) Commit yourself to the goals of your group. 2) Fulfill individual assignments. 3) Avoid interpersonal conflicts. 4) Encourage full participation. 5) Keep the discussion on track
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What are the THREE methods for presenting orally the recommendations of a problem-solving group?
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What are the THREE methods for presenting orally the recommendations of a problem-solving group? 1) Oral report. 2) Symposium. 3) Panel Discussion
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What are the stages of the reflective-thinking method? (5 stages)
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1) Define the problem. 2) Analyze the problem. 3) Establish criteria for solutions. 4) Generate potential solutions. 5) Select the best solution
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What are the FIVE major responsibilities of every participant in a small group?
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1) Commit yourself to the goals of your group. 2) Fulfill individual assignments. 3) Avoid interpersonal conflicts. 4) Encourage full participation. 5) Keep the discussion on track

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