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Personality Final Ch. 12-14

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The truth is that B. F. Skinner
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did not offer a personality theory at all.
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The essential truth about B. F. Skinner’s research is that
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his study of behavior is the antithesis of the psychoanalytic, trait, life span, cognitive and humanistic approaches.
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Skinner’s treatment of personality is unusual because he
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made no references to internal, subjective accounts for behavior.
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Skinner described human beings as
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empty organisms.
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Skinner argued that psychology is the science of
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behavior.
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Skinner rejected ____ as a valid personality characteristic.
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all of the answers
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Skinner believed that physiological processes are
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irrelevant for mental activities.
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Skinner believed people are subjects who express
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overt responses and nothing more.
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The research supporting Skinner’s theory was conducted on
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rats and pigeons.
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Skinner’s research subjects were mainly
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animals.
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Skinner’s influence on psychology
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has wide practical applications.
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Skinner’s behavioral approach is
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used in schools, correctional institutions, and hospitals.
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Skinner’s childhood was characterized by
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parental warnings that influenced his adult behavior.
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We get a glimpse of Skinner’s later work in his childhood love of
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constructing mechanical devices.
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Skinner was taught by his parents to
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“fear God, the police, and what people think.”
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At age 22, Skinner experienced
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an identity crisis.
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In his early adulthood, Skinner
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decided he would study human behavior by the methods of science rather than the methods of fiction.
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In Skinner’s fictional community of Walden Two,
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life is controlled by positive reinforcement.
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Skinner believed that behavior can be controlled by
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its consequences.
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When a specific stimulus elicits a response, it is called
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respondent behavior.
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In his famous salivating dog experiment, Ivan Pavlov demonstrated that
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reinforcement is necessary for learning.
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Ivan Pavlov’s classical conditioning involves
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all of the answers.
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To condition a dog to salivate at the sound of a bell, Pavlov
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rang the bell shortly before the dog smelled meat powder.
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Skinner believed that respondent behavior
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does not account for most human behavior.
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Skinner’s term for voluntary, explorative behavior is
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operant behavior.
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According to Skinner, operant behavior
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all of the answers.
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A rat pressing a lever in a Skinner box is showing ____ behavior.
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emitted
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According to Skinner, parental disapproval of a child’s behavior will
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probably lead to the cessation of that behavior.
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Skinner believed that personality is a(n)
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pattern or collection of operant behaviors.
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In Skinner’s research, food-deprived rats pressed a lever to receive a food pellet. The rat will eventually press the lever
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because he will understand that he will be reinforced for his behavior with a food pellet.
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The _______ becomes the reinforcer for the rat to receive a reward for his behavior.
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food
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When Skinner failed to reinforce rats in a Skinner box continuously, the rats
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eventually stopped pressing the lever.
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In fixed-interval reinforcement,
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reinforcement is unrelated to the number of responses.
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An employee paid on a weekly basis operates under a ____ schedule of reinforcement.
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fixed-interval
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In a fixed-interval reinforcement schedule, if the interval between reinforcements is shortened the response rate will
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increase.
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Compared to fixed-interval schedules, fixed-ratio schedules
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produce higher response rates.
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Slot machines operate on a ____ schedule of reinforcement.
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variable-ratio
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A good example of a variable-ratio schedule of reinforcement is
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casino gambling.
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Shaping a behavior that is not likely to occur spontaneously is accomplished by
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successive approximation.
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The secret to shaping behavior is
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reinforcing only successive approximations of the final behavior desired.
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The successive approximation method
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is also called shaping.
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Superstitious behavior is learned quickly when there are
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short intervals between reinforcements.
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To Skinner, self-control means
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control of external variables that determine behavior.
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Skinner suggests all of the following techniques of self-control except
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physical punishment administered by a friend.
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When a token economy was instituted in a psychiatric hospital,
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there was a dramatic increase in appropriate patient behaviors.
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In a token economy experiment, psychotic patients
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became less dependent and more responsible.
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Behavior modified in a token economy
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usually reverts to its original state when tokens are no longer provided.
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In behavior modification therapy, unconscious motivating forces are
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ignored.
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In behavior modification, Skinner advocated using
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only positive reinforcement.
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For changing behavior, Skinner believed punishment is
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often effective, but has undesirable side effects.
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An example of negative reinforcement is
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threatening to spank a child unless he cleans up his room.
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According to Skinner, negative reinforcement is
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less effective than positive reinforcement.
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According to Skinner, human behavior is controlled by
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reinforcers.
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Skinner believed people function
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like machines.
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Skinner believed people are not responsible for their actions, because
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all behavior is determined.
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Which one of the following best describes Skinner’s image of human nature?
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We are controlled by the environment, but we can control ourselves by changing the environment.
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Skinner’s assessment techniques include
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laboratory experiments.
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The followers of Skinner assess behavior, (not personality) using all of the following techniques except
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free association, dream analysis, and projective techniques.
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Each of the following is a factor in Skinner’s functional analysis except
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the motivation behind the behavior.
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Functional analysis
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all of these
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In the application of Skinner’s behavior modification techniques,
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it is necessary to first assess specific behaviors.
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Skinner’s methodological approach to the study of behavior is to
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observe the subject, have the subject do self-reports, and do physiological measurements.
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Skinner’s assessment methods
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preferred the intensive study of a single subject at a time.
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Skinner believed that valid and replicable results could be obtained without ____________ as long as sufficient data were collected from a single-subject under well-controlled circumstances.
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statistical analysis
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All of the following are criticisms of Skinner’s system except which?
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Operant conditioning cannot change behavior.
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Bandura criticizes Skinner for his
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study of individual animal subjects rather than on human subjects interacting with one another.
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All of the following are ways Albert Bandura differs from Skinner except
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learning as a function of reinforcement.
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In Albert Bandura’s approach to psychology,
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learning can occur without direct reinforcement.
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Bandura believes that reinforcement
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can occur vicariously and still affect behavior.
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Bandura believes that all forms of behavior can be learned
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without directly experiencing any reinforcement and by observing the behavior of others.
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The observational learning approach
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all of these
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The fundamental feature of Bandura’s theory is his
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idea of learning by observation or example.
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Bandura pointed out that operant conditioning is
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an inefficient way to learn certain skills.
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In modeling, new responses are acquired
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before ever performing or displaying them.
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Bandura’s famous Bobo doll experiment demonstrated the power of
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modeling.
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The behavior of children who watched an adult model attack a Bobo doll was
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twice as aggressive as the behavior of children in the control group.
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According to Bandura, parents of aggressive children are probably
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aggressive.
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Bandura has found that verbal modeling
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works best when interspersed with modeled demonstrations.
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Bandura believed that people are more likely to discard their inhibition against aggressive behavior if they see other people doing so. This is called
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disinhibition.
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_________ can involve what a person looks at or perceives when they observe others.
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Modeling
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According to studies, the disinhibiting power of modeling is enhanced when the
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all of the answers
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According to Bandura, deviant people
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followed different models that the rest of society considers undesirable.
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Hostile and aggressive behaviors, as seen in research, tend to be strongly imitated
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especially by children.
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In modeling experiments, as the similarity between model and subject decreases, the degree of modeling
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decreases.
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All of the following characteristics of models are important except
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bonds of friendship between model and subject.
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A child is more likely to model its behavior after a person
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rather than a cartoon character.
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Which behaviors are more likely to be imitated?
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all of the answers
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Which of kind of behavior is most likely to be imitated by children?
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aggressive
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People who are low in ___________ and ____________ are much more likely to imitate a model’s behavior than are people high in these two areas.
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self-confidence/self-esteem
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Bandura’s research has shown that observers pay closer attention to modeled behavior that
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produces positive or negative consequences rather than neutral outcomes.
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Each of the following is a process of observational learning except
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extinction processes.
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According to Bandura, attentional processes
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can be influenced by the model’s attractiveness and confidence.
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To retain behavior that has been observed, a person must
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encode the model’s behavior and represent it symbolically.
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Internal and verbal representational systems
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help the observer retain the model’s behavior.
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In Bandura’s __________ learning, we form a mental picture of the model’s behavior and use it as a basis for imitation at a future time.
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observational
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In the production processes, what has been observed and retained is
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translated into overt behavior.
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Incentive and motivational processes
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influence attentional and retention processes as well as performance of the desired behavior.
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In modeling and observational learning, reinforcement
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is not required for learning to occur.
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Bandura sees the self as a
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set of cognitive processes and structures.
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Bandura says much of our behavior is regulated by
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self-reinforcement.
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Bandura believes self-reinforcement
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is like requiring personal standards of behavior and achievement.
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Self-administered reinforcement
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all of the answers
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Self-reinforcement is
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somewhat like the conscience or superego, which Bandura denied.
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If you want competent, confident people, find ways to increase their sense of
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self-efficacy.
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Self-efficacy is determined by
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how well we meet our behavioral standards.
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Persons high in self-efficacy
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believe they deal effectively with life events.
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All of the following are sources of information about efficacy except
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performance on projective tests.
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The most influential source of efficacy judgments is
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performance attainment.
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Seeing other people fail at some activity
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can lower self-efficacy.
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All of the following are ways of increasing self-efficacy except
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counseling to increase enactive attainment.
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All of the following statements about the developmental aspects of modeling are true except which?
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Modeling is not important in development until after age two.
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By about the age of ____, children have developed sufficient attentional, retention, and production processes to begin imitating behavior some time after the observation rather than immediately.
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2.
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Self-efficacy in old age
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may be lowered because of declining physical abilities and retirement from work.
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Bandura’s approach to behavior modification is based on the assumption that
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abnormal behavior is learned.
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Bandura does not attempt to deal with
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modifying or changing learned behaviors.
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Bandura applied modeling techniques
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to eliminate fears and other intense emotional reactions
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A snake phobia can be eliminated by
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having subjects observe a live model, then actually handle the snake.
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One advantage of modeling as therapy is that it can
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be used with groups.
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The modeling approach to behavior modification
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can improve self-efficacy.
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Modeling has been shown to
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all of these
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Bandura’s work on ______________ has been criticized for exploiting people, manipulating and controlling them against their will.
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behavior modification.
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Arguing in favor of behavior modification, Bandura says it
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actually increases personal freedom.
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According to Bandura’s position on free will versus determinism, we are
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(along with our environment) reciprocal determinants of each other.
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Bandura sees human nature as influenced by
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past learning experiences
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Triadic reciprocality is the interaction of behavior, environment, and
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cognitive factors.
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Bandura points out that reinforcement
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does not automatically change behavior.
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Bandura’s assessment techniques include
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self-report inventories and self-ratings.
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Bandura’s research
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studies large groups of subjects and compares their average performance by statistical analysis.
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Research on self-efficacy shows that it is
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partly a function of gender and age.
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Research suggests that women perceive themselves as high in self-efficacy
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when they have traditionally female occupations.
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High self-efficacy is associated with
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all of the answers
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Self-efficacy has been shown to influence
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academic performance.
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People high in self-efficacy
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set higher goals for themselves on the job.
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In a study of adults in Germany, those who scored high in personal self-efficacy presented themselves on Facebook as
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relaxed, funny and cool in comparison to others that were low in personal self-efficacy.