Personality Exam 1 Quiz

Psychologists generally agree that personality
• refers mostly to surface traits
• is largely inherited
• can be explained by several different theories
• can best be explained by a single theory
can be explained by several different theories

Wording of items is sometimes reversed to
• avoid reversal errors.
• keep participants from becoming bored.
• save space on a questionnaire.
• determine whether those scoring the test are paying attention.
• avoid the acquiescence response-set bias.
avoid the acquiescence response-set bias.

A correlational design can be useful because it helps to determine
• the effect one variable has on another.
• a lot of information about an individual.
• the role of one variable in the development of another.
• the strength of the relationship between two variables.
• causal influences.
the strength of the relationship between two variables.

Which term applies to the tendency to believe that vague generalities are a good description of one’s personality?
• The gullibility effect
• The passive effect
• The believability effect
• The active effect
• The Barnum effect
The Barnum effect

Projective tests are different from other measures of personality in that they tend to be
• more objective.
• more subjective.
• more accurate.
• much shorter.
• much longer.
more subjective.

Which of the following directly measures psychopathology?
• the Q-sort test
• Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
• NEO Personality Inventory
• the Thematic Apperception Test
• the Draw-a-Person test
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory

If you read of a new “finding” in the newspaper one morning but noticed that only Caucasian subjects from Seattle were used in the experiment you might not give a lot of credibility to the study. This would be because of possible __________ limitations.
• sexual
• generalizability
• age
• gender-related
• paranormal
generalizability

Reliability refers to
• the ability of a scale to condense information.
• the ability of a scale to measure what it is supposed to.
• the ready availability of a scale.
• the ability of a scale to give consistent results.
• none of these
the ability of a scale to give consistent results.

According to your book, which is NOT a source of personality theory?
• analogy
• induction
• deduction
• conduction
• All of these are sources of personality theory
conduction

A theory that is as simple and concise as possible is
• parsimonious
• useless
• an operational theory
• internally consistent
parsimonious

According to Freudians, why do “Freudian slips” occur more often when we are tired or distracted?
• They don’t occur more often; we just remember them better.
• Defenses are down and the unconscious slips out.
• We are more likely to daydream.
• We get tired of consciously holding back true feelings.
• Fatigue contributes to weakness of the facial muscles.
Defenses are down and the unconscious slips out.

What best describes the “Oedipus complex”?
• A little boy’s fear of being castrated
• A little girl’s fear of having a penis
• A boy’s sexual feelings for his mother and rivalry with his father
• A boy’s rivalry with his mother and sexual feelings for his father
• A boy’s sexual feelings for his mother and rivalry with his other siblings for his mother’s full attention
A boy’s sexual feelings for his mother and rivalry with his father

What is the “latent content” of a dream, according to Freud?
• Its underlying hidden meaning
• The information about the dream that is recalled upon awakening
• Amnesia
• Our conscious memories of the emotions of the dream
• Reaction formation
Its underlying hidden meaning

Which is the term given to the female version of the “Oedipus complex”?
• Oedipustine complex
• Bathory complex
• Freud’s complex
• Electra complex
• Homer’s complex
Electra Complex

Freudian theory uses the term “libido” to refer to
• the psychic energy that is the basis of drive or motivation.
• the child’s internalization of societal norms.
• the child’s belief that girls were born with penises, but have suffered castration.
• a boy’s fear that his father will castrate him.
• the ability of mature individuals to make realistic compromises.
the psychic energy that is the basis of drive or motivation.

The __________ operates under the “pleasure principle,” while the __________ operates under the “reality principle.”
• id; ego
• ego; id
• id; superego
• ego; superego
• superego; ego
id; ego

Seeing deficiencies in others that one unconsciously feels within oneself is an example of which Freudian defense mechanism?
• Projection
• reaction formation
• fixation
• undoing
• repression
Projection

Freud’s theory dealt with sexuality because
• his sexually repressed Victorian-era patients were troubled by inner conflicts and tensions.
• Freud was ashamed of his own sexual desires.
• Freud thought only neurotic people experienced sexual tensions.
• Freud was very religious and wanted to purge people of their sexual compulsions.
• all of these
his sexually repressed Victorian-era patients were troubled by inner conflicts and tensions.

A current controversy that is relevant to the idea of repression deals with
• masturbation.
• people’s failing to recover their repressed memories.
• vagueness of memories.
• implantation of false memories by therapists.
• none of these are current controversies
implantation of false memories by therapists.

In Freud’s view, what is a major factor motivating human behavior?
• Free will
• Sexual urges
• Conditioning
• The need for self-respect
• Fear of failure
Sexual urges

The importance of birth order was discussed by
• Horney.
• Erikson.
• Adler.
• Jung.
• Freud.
Adler

Organ inferiority refers to the idea that
• the brain is inferior to the body.
• everyone has one bad organ that will fail.
• everyone is born with some physical weakness.
• the body is inferior because of organs.
• everyone’s heart is inferior to the brain.
everyone is born with some physical weakness.

The animus represents the __________, while the anima represents the __________.
• female element of a man; male element of a woman
• male element of a woman; animal element of a man
• female element of a man; animal element of a woman
• animal element of a man; animal element of a woman
• male element of a woman; female element of a man
(Animus) male element of a woman;
(Anima) female element of a man

Archetypes are
• valuable archaeological artifacts.
• powerful emotional symbols rooted in our human history.
• our beliefs about “god” as dictated by religion.
• worth less copies of artifacts.
• patterns of emotion or temperament.
powerful emotional symbols rooted in our human history.

Erikson’s theory of development focuses on the idea that
• one must recognize his or her own feelings.
• increasing inner unity involves ego repression.
• growth involves stages in which we resolve conflicts throughout life.
• trust vs. mistrust develops in adolescence and strongly affects adulthood.
• libidinal transformation is inferior to reinforcement.
growth involves stages in which we resolve conflicts throughout life.

Erikson’s theory is unique and particularly well known for its focus on
• the importance of identity.
• continued development in adulthood.
• the significance of life crisis for encouraging personal growth.
• development over the life-span.
• all of these
all of these

Karen Horney believed that women often felt inferior to men because
• they were being realistic and knew they were inferior.
• they were focused on the collective unconscious idea of the Mother figure.
• they were experiencing penis envy.
• they were raised to see men as superior, and society denied them equal opportunity.
• she did not have an opinion on this topic, due to arguments by L. Hans.
they were raised to see men as superior, and society denied them equal opportunity.

Someone who is “moving toward” people would exhibit which of the following behaviors?
• withdrawal of emotion
• initiating conflicts with others
• striving for power
• seeking to please others
• attempting to control others
seeking to please others

An individual who is high in self-monitoring is likely to
• focus on being consistent in behavior at all times.
• believe that fate determines life circumstances.
• be a poor actor.
• maintain a situational orientation.
• maintain a dispositional orientation.
maintain a situational orientation

Which of the following characterizes Object Relations Theories? Theories that have to do with how people:
• relate to the material world
• learn in school
• cooperate with others in a group
• learn about themselves and others through interactions with other people
• react in stressful situations in which an object is the cause, e.g., a person’s computer breaks during a project
learn about themselves and others through interactions with other people

An individual who is interested in experimenting with drugs, going skydiving, and traveling to exotic places is probably
• high in sensation-seeking.
• neurotic.extroverted.
• high in self-monitoring.
• mentally unstable.
high in sensation-seeking.

According to Darwin, individual differences
• have a function in survival.
• can be adaptive.
• can aid in passing on one’s genes to offspring.
• have a genetic basis.
• all of these
all of these

Which of the following statements best describes the biological perspective’s view of free will?
• Humans have the potential for free will beyond the constraints of the body (i.e. spiritual free will.
• Free will differentiates humans from other animals.
• Behavior is determined by biological tendencies.
• Behavior is determined by biological tendencies and the unconscious.
• Behavior occurs at random, with no rhyme or reason.
Behavior is determined by biological tendencies.

“Temperament” refers to
• stable individual differences in emotional reactivity.
• individuals’ widely varying fluctuations in mood.
• the trait of being irritable and temperamental.
• physical characteristics which correlate with behaviors.
• a disease common in dogs that sometimes is transmitted to humans.
stable individual differences in emotional reactivity.

Tropisms are
• health-promoting environments.
• motivational forces influencing individuals’ health behaviors.
• unhealthy temperaments.
• health-threatening environments.
• genetically caused chromosome abnormalities.
motivational forces influencing individuals’ health behaviors.

A major study done at the University of Minnesota, which studied identical twins raised apart, found
• same sex and opposite sex twins have similar personalities.
• people raised in Minnesota do not like Mexican food.
• similarities in physical appearance but not personality.
• impressive similarities in personality between people who have the same genetic makeup.
• personality is mostly located in the genes, regardless of the environment.
impressive similarities in personality between people who have the same genetic makeup.

If we postulate that introverts are innately at a higher level of central nervous system arousal, this is an application of
• Pavlov’s theory of the classical conditioning of traits.
• Freud’s theory of the hydraulic nature of the id.
• Buss’s theory of the evolution of less attractive men.
• Eysenck’s linking of the dimension of introversion to biology.
• none of these
Eysenck’s linking of the dimension of introversion to biology.

Darwin’s evolutionary theory argues that
• It’s every man for himself
• What evolves is a capacity for certain behaviors in certain situations
• Genes consciously strive to reproduce
• Our biology determines our personalities
What evolves is a capacity for certain behaviors in certain situations

Daly and Wilson suggest that family violence and abuse against children in modern America is often due to
• evolutionary pressures driving individuals to protect themselves against all others (self-preservation instinct.
• evolutionary pressures driving individuals to protect the human race from attack.
• psychological conflicts in the abuser’s unconscious.
• reinforced behavioral patterns that include violent actions.
• evolutionary pressures driving individuals to care more for their own offspring than for others.
evolutionary pressures driving individuals to care more for their own offspring than for others.

Which of the following statements is NOT an advantage of a biological perspective on study of personality?
• Potential for use in eugenics
• Easily combined with other approaches
• Takes into account genetic differences between people
• Acknowledges environmental factors that can influence people’s behavior
• Acknowledges biological factors that can influence people’s behavior
Potential for use in eugenics