Period 5 – AP World History

Flashcard maker : Charles Clay
What made fossil fuel exploitation possible? What types of fossil fuels
were most commonly used between 1750 and 1900?
Development of machines (steam and internal combustion engines); coal and oil
The \”____________________\” revolution greatly increased the energy
available to human societies.
\”fossil fuels\”
What are 2 important changes that occurred as a result of the
development of the factory system?
1. Concentrated labor into a single location
2. Led to increased degree of specialization of labor
Where did the new methods of production spread from? Where did they spread to?
Spread from Northwest Europe to other parts of Europe, the United States, Russia, and Japan.
When was the \”second industrial revolution\”? What methods of
production did it involve?
Second half of the nineteenth century; new methods of production in steel, chemicals, electricity, and precision machiery
What led to new patterns of global trade further integration of the global economy between 1750 and 1900?
Industrialists sought raw materials and new markets for the increasing amount and array of goods produced in their factories.
What needs led to the growth of export economies that specialized in \”single natural resources\”? Examples? What were the profits used for?
Need of raw materials and greater food supply; profits used to purchase finished goods. Ex. cotton, palm oil, sugar, wheat, meat, guano, metals, and minerals
What led to the decline of agriculturally based economies between 1750 and 1900? Example?
Rapid increase of productivity caused by industrial production; Ex. textile production in India
The rapid development of industrial production encouraged
industrialized states to seek out new _____________________ for their finished goods. Provide some examples:
\”consumer markets\”; Ex. British and French attempts to \”open\” the Chinese economy
What led to the development of extensive mining centers between 1750 and 1900? Examples?
Metals and global demand for gold, silver, and diamonds; Ex. copper mines in Mexico and gold/diamond mines in South Africa
Who provided the ideological inspiration for economic changes
between 1750 and 1900?
Adam Smith and John Stuart Mill
What \”financial instruments\” came into extensive use between 1750 and 1900?
Stock markets, insurance, gold standard, and limited liability corporations
What major transportation and communication developments occurred between 1750 and 1900?
Railroads, steamships, telegraphs, and canals
What gains did newly developed workers’ organization hope to
Better working conditions, limited hours, and gain increased wages
Why did some workers promote alternative visions of society?
Opposed capitalist exploitation of workers; Ex. Utopian socialism, Marxism, and anarchism
What imperial governments from the era 1750-1900 resisted economic change and attempt to maintain pre-industrial forms of economic production?
Qing China and Ottoman Empires
What are some examples of state-sponsored visions of
Economic reforms in Meiji Japan, development of factories and railroads in Tsarist Russia, China’s Self-Strengthening movement, and Muhammad Ali’s development of a cotton textile industry in Egypt
What are some examples of reforms that some regions instituted in response to criticism of global capitalism?
State pensions and public health in Germany, expansion of suffrage in Britain and public education
What new classes developed between 1750 and 1900?
Middle class and industrial working class
What changes occurred in family life and gender roles between 1750 and 1900?
Family dynamics, gender roles, and demographics changed
What changes occurred as a result of rapid urbanization between 1750 and 1900?
Unsanitary conditions and new forms of community
Which states’ existing colonies were strengthened between 1750 and 1900?
British in India and the Dutch in Indonesia
Which states established new empires throughout Asia and the Pacific between 1750 and 1900?
British, Dutch, French, Germans, Russians, Americans, and Japanese
Which states’ influence declined between 1750 and 1900?
Spain and Portugal
Which states established settler colonies between 1750 and 1900? Where?
Britain – South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand
France – Algeria
What economic practice did many powerful states employ outside of their established empire between 1750 and 1900? Examples?
Economic imperialism; Ex. British and French in China with the Opium Wars, or British and U.S. heavy investment in Latin America
What influenced the emergence of Meiji Japan?
Expansion of U.S. and European influence over Tokugawa Japan
Who emulated European transoceanic imperialism between 1750 and 1900?
The United States and Russia
How was the Ottoman Empire affected by anti-imperial resistance? Examples?
Led to the contraction of the Ottoman Empire; Ex. establishment of independent states in the Balkans, semi-independence in Egypt, French & Italian colonies in North Africa, and British influence in Egypt
What are some examples of states that developed at the edges of existing empires between 1750 and 1900?
Cherokee nation, Siam, Hawai’i, and the Zulu Kingdom
What new ideology helped to foster new communal identities between 1750 and 1900? Examples?
Nationalism; Ex. German nation, Filipino nationalism, and Liberian nationalism
How was imperialism often justified?
New racial ideologies; Ex. Social Darwinism
What are the defining characteristics \”enlightenment thought\” and role did it play in politics between 1750 and 1900?
Questioned established traditions in all areas of life; preceded revolutions and rebellions against government
List some examples of \”thinkers\” (intellectuals) from the enlightenment era. What did they encourage? What did they critique? What did their political ideas focus on?
Voltaire & Rosseau; encouraged observation and inference; critiqued role religion played in public life; political ideas focused on individual, natural rights, and the social contract
List 3 important examples of revolutionary documents from the
enlightenment era:
1. American Declaration of Independence
2. French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
3. Bolivar’s Jamaica Letter
What major social and political shifts did Enlightenment thinking inspire between 1750 and 1900?
expansion of rights, abolition of slavery, and the end of serfdom
Between 1750 and 1900, newly imagined national communities were built around a sense of commonality typically based on what four things?
1. language
2. religion
3. social customs
4. territory
What centralized imperial governments witnessed
rebellions/revolutions between 1750 and 1900?
Wahhabi rebellion against Ottomans
Challange of Marathas to Mughal sultans
American colonial rebellions facilitated the emergence of independent states in what regions?
U.S., Haiti, and mainland Latin America
What are the 4 major independence movements that occurred
between 1750 and 1900?
1. American Revolution
2. French Revolution
3. Haitian Revolution
4. Latin American independence movements
What areas witnessed significant slave resistance between 1750 and 1900?
Brazil, Cuba, and the Guyanas
Name two anticolonial movements that occurred in Asia between 1750 and 1900? What inspired these movements?
Indian Revolt and Boxer Rebellion; questions about political authority and growing nationalism
Name several important rebellions between 1750-1900 that were based on religious beliefs/millenarianism.
Taiping Rebellion, The Ghost Dance, and the Xhosa Cattle-Killing Movement
What are some examples of imperial reforms that were implemented in response increasing rebellions between 1750 and 1900?
Tanzimat Movement and the Self-Strengthening Movement
What new political ideologies were inspired by the rebellions of 1750-1900?
liberalism, socialism, and communism
What are some examples of the challenges to gender hierarchies between 1750 and 1900?
demands for women’s suffrage and an emergent feminism
What influenced migration between 1750 and 1900?
changes in demography that presented challenges to existing living patterns
What contributed to global rise in population between 1750 and 1900?
Changes in food production and improving medical conditions
What influenced the significant global urbanization of the 19th
The nature of new modes of transportation
What sorts of individuals chose to relocate in search of work between 1750 and 1900?
manual laborers and specialized professionals
What types of labor did the global capitalist community continue to rely on between 1750 and 1900? List some examples.
coerced and semi-coerced labor migration; Ex. slavery, Chinese and Indian indentured servitude, and convict labor
Provide some example of temporary and seasonal migrants who returned to their home societies rather than permanently relocating.
Japanese agricultural workers in the Pacific, Lebanese merchants in the Americas, and Italians in Argentina
Why did migrant workers of the 19th century tend to be male? How did this change women’s roles in the home societies?
due to the physical nature of the labor in demand; left women to take on roles in the home society that were previously occupied by men
What are some examples of ethnic enclaves created by migrants in different parts of the world?
Chinese in SE Asia, the Caribbean, and the Americas; Indians in E & S Africa, the Caribbean, and SE Asia
What role did ethnic enclaves play in migrants’ lives?
transplanted culture and facilitated the development of migrant support networks
What are some of the ways in which receiving societies reacted to immigrants?
1. ethnic and racial prejudice
2. regulation of the increasing flow of people across their borders

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