PENS The Sentence Writing Strategy

Simple Sentence
A sentence that has one independent clause

Independent Clause
a group of words with
1. a subject and a verb and
2. it can stand alone because it makes a complete statement

difference between a simple sentence and independent clause
A simple sentence starts with a capital letter and ends with a period.

Five criteria for any sentence
1. at least one subject
2. at least one verb
3. make a complete statement
4. starts with a capital letter
5. has end punctuation ( . ! ? )

Subject
noun that the sentence is about
a noun= person place thing quality or idea

Verb
A word that shows the
action
or
state of being
of the subject of the sentence

physical (rowing) and mental (want) actions

State of being verbs
or
Linking verbs
Am, are , is , was ,were, be, been , being, become, seem,

Verb-Subject
identification procedure
1. look for the verb and put a V above it
2. ask yourself who or what the verb did to find the subject and put S above it

Subject phrase
a group of words that includes adjectives and the main subject

Main Subject
The one word that has to be present for the sentence to make sense

Helping Verbs
Helping Verbs help tell when the action of the sentence takes place ( past, present, future, possible)

am, are, can, could, do, does, did, has, have, had, is, may, might, must, shall, should, was, were, will, would,

be been being~~ cant use them alone

Verb Phrase
a group of words that includes helping verbs and the main verb

compound subject
when a sentence has two or more subjects performing the same verb(s)

compound verb
a sentence’s subject performs two or more actions or has two or more states of being

PENS
the sentence writing strategy
Pick a formula
Explore words to fit the formula
Note the words
Search and check
Capital letter
End punctuation
Makes sense

Simple sentence formulas
SV
SSV
SVV
SSVV

compound sentence
A sentence with two or more independent clauses

Coordinating Conjunctions
Words that are used with a comma ( , ) to join two independent clauses.

FAN BOYS
,for
,and
,nor

,but
,or
,yet
,so

Semicolon
A punctuation mark used to join two independent clauses

Compound sentence formulas
I,c I (Cate is happy, for she ran a marathon.)

I; I (Cate went skydiving; she threw up.)

complex sentence
a sentence that has one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses

dependent clause
a group of words with a subject and a verb that cannot stand alone

subordinating conjunctions
words that show the relationship between the dependent clause and the independent clause

complex formulas
D,I
ID

sample subordinating conjunctions
although
after
before
even though
if
rather than
since
unless
whenever
while

compound-complex sentence
A sentence that has two or more independent clauses and at least one dependent clause.

compound-complex formulas
D,I;I
D,I,cI

ID,cI
ID;I

I,cID
I;ID

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