PED 101 Final: Chapters 7 & 8

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When hydrogen atoms are added to an unsaturated oil to cause more complete saturation, it produces
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trans fats
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According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Americans consume an average of approximately ________ calories more per day now than they did in 1970.
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500
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T/F: A rise in the importation of fresh fruits and vegetables from developing countries increases the risk of foodborne illnesses.
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true
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T/F: Monounsaturated fatty acids contain only one saturated region.
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true
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T/F: Maintaining a healthy weight increases life expectancy.
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true
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A pre-programmed weight that your body returns to easily when you gain or lose a few pounds is known as
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a set point
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The condition in which the body fails to produce enough hemoglobin in the blood is termed
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iron-deficiency anemia
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T/F: Anaerobic exercise is the best calorie burner.
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false
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Which mineral helps regulate pH balance?
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phosphorus
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People with low vitamin intakes tend to not eat enough
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fruits
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T/F: “Low-fat” cookies made with vegetable shortening are generally healthy foods
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false
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An oil high in monounsaturated fatty acid is
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olive oil
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One weight-loss supplement that has been banned in the United States is
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ephedra
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T/F: Everyone who diets will experience some degree of lowered metabolism during a period of calorie restriction
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true
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Approximately what percentage of people who try dieting regains the weight within 2 years or less?
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75%
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The “bad cholesterol,” which leads to plaque deposits in blood vessels, is known as
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LDL
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On average, what percentage of our daily calories comes from sweets, sodas and fruit drinks, alcoholic beverages, and salty snacks?
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33%
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T/F: Active adults need about 1,200 to 1,500 calories of food energy per day
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false
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Chemical compounds that supply the energy and raw materials we need to survive are known as
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nutrients
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Jake has gained 10 lbs in the last five years due to inactivity and is beginning to notice significant stiffness in his joints. His problem may be related to the fact that his weight gain has significantly increased his risk of
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arthritis
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Of the 20 different types of amino acids, ________ are considered essential
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9
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A disease associated with low calcium intake is known as
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osteoporosis
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Anemia results in
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low blood oxygen levels
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This mineral is a component of thyroid hormone; deficiency leads to goiter
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iodine
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A vitamin that aids blood clotting is
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Vitamin K
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Which lifestyle factor is related to weight gain?
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getting less than 6 hours of sleep
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Which of the following is a fat-soluble vitamin?
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Vitamin A
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One of the most important variables in determining a person’s caloric needs is
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body size
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An eating disorder characterized by deliberate food restriction and severe, life-threatening weight loss is known as
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anorexia nervosa
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T/F: Underweight people have a higher death rate than normal-weight or overweight people
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true
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T/F: Obesity is not increasing in low-income developing countries
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false
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T/F: A majority of college students are dissatisfied with their body shape and size.
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true
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T/F: U.S. college students are typically in better shape than the general adult population.
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true
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A measure of the amount of chemical energy that a food provides is known as
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a calorie
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The Daily Reference Value (DRV) for fiber is ________ grams per day.
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25
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One’s baseline rate of energy use, dictated by the body’s collective metabolic activities, is known as
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basal metabolic rate
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Your friend is thinking about trying a fad diet to lose weight. Given the information in this chapter on problems associated with fad diets, you can inform her that
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unless she changes her eating habits permanently, she will regain the weight
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If you are obese and a non-smoker, your life expectancy is approximately
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6 years less than that of a normal-weight person
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The fatty acids in most foods and in the body occur in the form of
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Triglycerides
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Substances that form the major structural components of the body are known as
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proteins
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Underweight is defined as a BMI of
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<18.5
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Which mineral assists with the breakdown of glucose?
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chromium
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Foods that typically make you feel full and keep you satisfied longer
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Consist of higher amounts of fiber
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The term that the World Health Organization created to describe the world-wide trend of increasing obesity rates is
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global expansion
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A good source of complex carbohydrate includes
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squash
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Simple carbohydrates primarily provide
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energy
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T/F: Excess fat-soluble vitamins tend to be stored in the body.
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true
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A deficiency of what vitamin is linked to development of fibrocystic breast disease?
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Vitamin E
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Atypical, abnormal food consumption that diminishes wellness but is not long-lived is known as
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disordered eating
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T/F: Most Americans consume less than the daily amount of calcium recommended by government guidelines.
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true
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A vitamin that is important in maintaining vision is
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Vitamin A
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T/F: Most “low-carb” foods are highly processed.
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true
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John is a healthy 20-year-old college student. He weighs 160 lbs and jogs at a moderate pace 3 days per week for 20 minutes. Based on this information, approximately how many grams of protein does he need daily?
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60 grams
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Dehydration can result in a deficiency of this mineral, which can cause paralysis and can actually stop the heart.
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potassium
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Which of the following activities would burn the highest amount of calories per minute?
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swimming
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T/F: Weight loss resulting from the Atkins Diet is primarily a result of the high protein intake.
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false
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T/F: Nutritional supplements are required for optimal muscle growth and strength gains.
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false
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T/F: The Mediterranean Diet encourages people to use olive oil liberally in cooking and at the table.
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true
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Another name for macrominerals is
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major minerals
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Organic compounds that we need in tiny amounts to promote growth and help maintain health are known as
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vitamins
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A poor diet contributes to heart disease, breast cancer, obesity, and
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arthritis
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Which racial/ethnic group has the lowest percentage of overweight?
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Asian Americans
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What percentage of Americans engages in no exercise, sports, or other physical activity at all during their leisure time?
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40%
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A person who wants to lose weight should strive to achieve
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negative caloric balance
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T/F: Being fit significantly reduces your mortality risk, regardless of the percentage of body fat you have.
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true
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Proteins from plant sources
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can be combined to obtain complementary proteins
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T/F: Non-walkable neighborhoods with no opens space for recreation have child obesity rates twice as high as neighborhoods have those amenities
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true
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You are more likely to remain healthy throughout your life if
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your body’s fat deposits tend to occur around the hips and thighs
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T/F: Accessibility of fast food increases food overconsumption
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true
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Oxygen derivatives that can cause the body damage are known as
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free radicals
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T/F: Acute iron toxicity is the leading cause of accidental poisoning in small children in the US
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true
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Shelly is happy with her current body weight and wants to maintain it. To do this, she needs to be a in
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Isocaloric balance
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The best method for burning calories is
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aerobic exercise involving large muscles
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In 2013, the World Health Organization estimated that _____ of the world’s adults are overweight or obese
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15%
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Humans are made up of approximately ____% water
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60
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T/F: Poor diet is one of the biggest contributors to diabetes
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true
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After achieving your target weight, you should
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Add back in enough calories to maintain the new weight
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The glycemic index is a measure of the rate at which foods
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Raise blood sugar levels
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A pattern of losing/gaining weight is known as
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weight cycling
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Obesity is defined as a BMI of
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>30
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T/F: According to current research, the more money a person makes, the more likely he is or she is to be overweight
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false
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A syndrome characterized by negative self-perception in which a person become obsessed with a physical defect is known as
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Body dysmorphic disorder
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Which of these is the best source of soluble fiber?
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dried beans
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T/F: A person’s need for water remains fairly constant regardless of diet and exercise
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false
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Successful weight loss can be best accomplished by
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Making small dietary changes over time
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Jan is an endurance athlete. Due to her activity level, she needs more calories than the average female. For her to perform at her peak, it is recommended that the majority of her calories come from
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complex carbohydrates
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HDL cholesterol
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helps protect against heart disease
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Which of the following can be a component of metabolic syndrome?
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high blood pressure
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A lifestyle factor that influences weight includes
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exercise

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