Pearson’s Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 2

Matter
anything that occupies space and has mass
States of Matter
Solid, Liquid, Gas
Energy
The capacity to do work, or to put matter into motion.
Kinetic Energy
Energy in action
Potential Energy
Stored Energy, inactive energy that has the potential or capability to do work but is not presently doing so.
Chemical Energy
the form stored in the bonds of chemical substances. A form of potential energy that is stored in chemical bonds between atoms.
Electrical Energy
results from the movement of charged particles. (The nervous system uses electrical currents)
Mechanical Energy
is energy directly involved in moving matter. (Riding a bicycle provides mechanical energy to move the petals)
Radiant Energy / Electromagnetic Energy
Energy that travels in waves and vary in length, collectively called the electromagnetic spectrum.
Electromagnetic Spectrum
Waves of energy that very in length. They include Visible light, infrared waves, radio waves, ultraviolet waves, and x rays.
Elements
Unique substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical methods. 118 Elements are recognized, 92 of them occur in nature, the other 26 are man made.
Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen and Nitrogen make up ________ % of the human body
96%
Periodic table
provides a complete listing of known elements to help explain the properties of each element and how they react with one another
Elements are made of small particles known as
Atoms
Physical Properties
those properties that we can detect with our senses (color and texture) or measure (boiling point and freezing point)
Chemical Properties
those properties that we can detect by the way atoms interact with another atom (bonding behavior, etc)
Atomic Symbol
a 1 or 2 letter chemical short hand, usually the first letter(s) of an elements name.
Nucleus
Central structure that contains protons and neutrons that are tightly bound together. Protons and Neutrons are heavy particles and have the same mass, and are desginated as 1 amu (atomic mass unit). 99.9% of an atoms mass is located in the nucleus/
Protons
Have a positive electrical charge, located in the nucleus
Neutrons
Have a neutral charge, located in the nucleus,
Atomic Mass
The approximate total mass of an atom; also called atomic weight. Given as a whole number, the atomic mass approximately equals the mass number.
Electrons
Have a negative charge equal in strength to the positive charge of a proton. However the electron ony has about 1/2000 the mass of a proton, and is usually represented as 0 amu.
Planetary Model
An early model of the atom in which electrons were thought to exist in quantized energy levels and orbit the nucleus in a fixed, circular pathway.
Orbitals
The regions around the nucleus in which a given electron pair is likely to be found
Orbital Model
Depicts the general location of electrons outside the nucleus as a haze of negative charge referred to as the electron cloud
Atomic Number
Equal to the number of protons in the nucleus, and is written as a subscript to the left of the atomic symbol
Mass Number
The sum of the masses of it’s protons and neutrons. The mass of electrons is so small that it’s ignored. The Mass Number is written as a superscript on the left hand size of the Atomic Number.
Isotopes
Atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons they contain.
Atomic Weight
Is an average of the relative weights (mass numbers) of all the isotopes of an element. Example the atomic weight of Hydrogen is 1.008
Radioisotopes
A heavier isotope that has an unstable nucleus and undergoes radioactive decay to decompose into a more stable form.
Subatomic Particles
Alpha (packets of 2p +2n), Beta (electron like negative particles), or Gamma (Electromagnetic energy that is ejected from the atomic nucleus)
Atomic Half Life
the time required for something to fall to half its initial value (in particular, the time for half the atoms in a radioactive substance to disintegrate)
Molecule
A combination of two or more of the same atoms that are held together by chemical bond.
Compound
A chemical substance made up of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds is called a
Solutions
Homogeneous mixtures of components that may be gases, liquids or solids.
Homogeneous
COMPOSED OF IDENTICAL PARTS; UNIFORM IN COMPOSITION
Solvent
The substance that presents in greatest amount, usually liquids.
Solutes
Components in smaller quantities within a solution
Concentration of Solutions
Concentration used in college laboratory or hospitals are described in terms of the percent or (Parts per 100 parts) of the solute in the solution. This designation always refers to the solute percentage, unless other wise noted, and water is assumed to be the solvent.
Molarity
A common measure of solute concentration, referring to the number of moles of solute per liter of solution.
Mole
A mole of any element or compound is equal to its atomic weight or molecular weight, (sum of the atomic weights) weighed out in grams.
Avogardo’s Number
(6.022 x 10^23) is the number of particles in one mole of a pure substance.
Colloids (Emulsions)
A Heterogeneous mixture, which means that their composition is dissimilar in different areas of the mixtures. Colloids often appear translucent or milky, they do not settle out.
Sol-gel Transformations
Reversible change of a colloid from a fluid (sol) to a more solid (gel) state.
Suspensions
A Heterogeneous mixture with large, often visible solutions that tend to settle out.
Heterogeneous
composed of unlike parts; different; diverse
Chemical Bonds
A union between the electron structures of two or more atoms
Electron Shells
The formation of electrons in the electron cloud around the nucleus of an atom that occupy regions. Atoms known so far have electrons in seven shells, and the shells are numbered 1 – 7
Energy Level
Each electron shell represents a different energy level. In general the terms electron shell and Energy Level are used interchangeably.
Valence Shell
Indicates an atoms outermost energy level or that portion containing the electrons that are chemically reactive.
Octet Rule / Rule of Eights
Except for a shell of 1, which is full when it has 2 electrons, atoms tent to interact in such a way that have eight electrons in their Valence Shell.
Ionic Bonds
A chemical bond between atoms formed by the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to another.
Anion
A negatively charged ion
Cation
A positively charged ion
Crystals
Most ionic compounds fall in the chemical category called SALTS. In the dry state, salts such as sodium chloride do not exist as individual molecules. Instead they form large arrays of cations and anions held together by ionic bonds.
Covalent Bonds
Electron sharing productes molecules in wich the shared electrons occupy a single orbital common to both atoms.
Polar Molecules
Unequal electron pair sharing, molecules in which the charges are unevenly distributed; they can attract each other
Nonpolar Molecule
Molecule that shares electrons equally and does not have oppositely charged ends
electronegativity
A measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons
Electropositive
having the tendency to release valence electrons to other elements
Dipole
A polar molecule
Reactants & Products
A starting material in a chemical reaction & The ending materials in a chemical reaction.
Molecular Formula
A chemical formula that shows the number and kinds of atoms in a molecule, but not the arrangement of the atoms.
Synthesis or Combination Reaction
Always involves bond formation and can be represented as:

A+B -> AB

Anabolic
A process in body cells, which large molecules are built from small molecules
Decomposition Reactions
Occur when a molecule is broken down into smaller molecules or it’s constituent atoms:

AB -> A+B

Catabolic
Decomposition reactions underlie all degradative processes in cell body.
Exchange or Displacement Reactions
Involve both synthesis and decomposition reactions.

AB + C -> AC + B or AB + CD -> AD + CB

Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Or Redox Reactions
Reactions that are decomposition reaction in which they are the basis of all reactions for food fuels that are broken down for energy.
Oxidized
An electron donor that looses electrons, is said to be ______ .
Reduced
An electron accepter that gains electrons, is said to be _______.
Exergonic Reactions
Chemical reactions that release energy
Endergonic Reactions
Chemical reactions that store energy, combining the energy of the reactants. ATP formation is endergonic, because ADP & Pi are added together to store energy between the bonds. Enzymes help supply energy to form those bonds.
Chemical Equilibrium
In a chemical reaction, the state in which the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction, so that the relative concentrations of the reactants and products do not change with time.
Factors that Influence Rate of Chemical Reactions
Temperature, Concentration, Particle Size, Catalysts
Biochemistry
Chemistry dealing with chemical compounds and processes in living plants and animals
Organic Compounds
Compounds that contain Carbon
Inorganic Compounds
Chemicals in the body that are do not contain carbon. (For example, Water, Salts, Acids and Bases.)
Why is Water Vital to Life?
High Heat Capacity, High Heat of Vaporization, Polar Solvent Properties, Reactivity, Cushioning.
Universal Solvent
Water is considered a Universal Solvent, due to its polarity and ability to dissolve many different solutes
Hydration Layers
water forms layers of molecules around large charged molecules such as proteins, shielding them from the effects of other charged substances in the vicinity and preventing them from settling out of solution; protein-water mixtures are biological colloids; blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid
Hydrolysis Reactions
Processes that occur when large molecules are broken down into smaller parts by the addition of water
Dehydration Synthesis
A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule.
Salt
An ionic compunt that contains Cations other than H+ and Anions other than the hydroxl ion (OH-). A compound resulting from the formation of an ionic bond; also called an ionic compound.
Electrolytes
Substances that conduct an electrical current in solution
Acids
Releases Hydrogen Ions (H+) in Deductible amounts. Because the hydrogen ion is just a hydrogen nucleus, or “naked” proton, acids are also defied as proton donors.
Bases
Take up Hydrogen Ions.
Bicarbonate Ion
HCO3-, Carbon dioxide mixed with water in plasma in blood, particularly abundant in the blood.
Ammonia
A small, very toxic molecule (NH3) produced by nitrogen fixation or as a metabolic waste product of protein and nucleic acid metabolism.
PH Units
The relative concentration of hydrogen ions in various body fluids is measured in concentration units
PH Scale
measurement system used to indicate the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in solution; ranges from 0 to 14
Neutralization Reaction
a chemical reaction in which an acid and a base interact with the formation of a salt
Strong Bases
Dissociated completely into metal ions and hydroxide ions in aqueous solutions.
Weak Bases
React with water to form the hydroxide ion and the conjugate acid of the base.
Strong Acids
Completely dissociate in water
Weak Acids
Do not Dissociate completely, and dissociate in a predictable way.
Electroneutral
the carbon never loses or gains electrons instead they always share them
Polymers
Chain like molecules made of similar or repeating units, which are joined together by dehydration synthesis.
Monomers
A chemical subunit that serves as a building block of a polymer.
Carbohydrates
Contain Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen, and generally hydrogen and oxygen atoms occur in a 2:1 Ratio as in water.
Classification of Carbohydrates
Monosaccharide (one sugar), Disaccharide (two sugar), and Polysaccharide (many sugars)
Monosaccharides
Simple Sugars, or single chain or ring structure containing from three to seven carbon atoms. Generally carbon, hydrogen and oxygen occur in a 1:2:1 Ratio. Monosaccharides are named according to the number of carbon atoms they contain. (most important to the body are the pentose (5 carbon) and the hexose (six carbon) sugars. The Pentose Deoxyribose is part of DNA and the Glucose is a hexose, and is blood sugar.
Disaccharides
Double Sugar, is formed when two monosaccharides are joined by dehydration synthesis.
Polysaccharides
Carbohydrate containing more than two monsaccharides joined by glycosidic bonds. Starch, glycogen, and cellulose.
Lipids
Insoluble in water but dissolved in other lipids and in organic solvents such as alcohol and ether. Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Triglycerides
known as fats when solid or oils when liquid, composed of fatty acids and glycerol.
Saturated Fats
Fatty acid chains with only single covalent bonds between carbon atoms.
Unsaturated Fats
A Fatty acid that contains one or more double bond between carbon atom (monounsaturated and polyunsaturated)
Trans Fats
Common in types of margarines and baked products, oils have been solidified by the addition of H atoms at cites of Carbon Double bonds.
Phospholipids
A lipid made up of a glyerol joined to two fatty acids and a phosphate group; has two hydrophobic tails and a polar, hydrophilic head
Steroids
A type of lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four rings with various functional groups attached.
Eiscosanoids
derived from a 20-carbon fatty acid, found in all cell membranes, most important of these are the PROSTAGLANDINS and their relatives, which play a role in various body processes including blood clotting, regulation of blood pressure, inflammation, and labor contractions.
Proteins
Compose 10-30% of cell mass and is the basic structural material of the body. Many play a vital roll in cell function, Proteins include enzymes (biological catalysts) hemoglobin of the blood, contractile proteins of the muscle. All proteins contain carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen and many contain sulfur.
Amino Acids
The building blocks of proteins, of which there are 20 common types. All Amino acids have two important function groups, amine group (-NH2) and an organic acid group (-cooh). Amino Acids can either be a base (proton acceptor) or a acid (proton donor).
Peptide Bond
The chemical bond that forms between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid
Macromolecules
Four main classes of large biological molecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids)
Fibrous Proteins
bind structures together and for providing strength in certain body tissues. ex: collogen and keratin (Structural Proteins)
Globular Proteins
These proteins are small spheres with little to no water inside. They have hydrophobic amino acids in the inside and hydrophilic R groups on the outside. (Functional Proteins)
Denatured
Environmental conditions that cause hydrogen bonds to break and ph drops or the temperature rises above normal levels causing proteins to unfold and loose their 3-d specific shape.
Molecular Chaperones
A protein that helps other proteins fold or refold from a partially denatured state.
Enzymes
Globular Proteins that act as biological catalysts.
Catalysts
Substances that regulate and accelerate the rate of biochemical reactions but are not used up or changed in those chemical reactions.
Holoenzyme
apoenzyme + cofactor
Coenzyme
a small molecule (not a protein but sometimes a vitamin) essential for the activity of some enzymes
Cofactor
A nonprotein molecule or ion that is required for the proper functioning of an enzyme. Often inorganic, nonprotein helpers such as zinc, iron, or copper
Apoenzyme
An enzyme that requires cofactors in order to become catalytically active.
Substrate
A part, substance, or element that lies beneath and supports another part, substance, or element; the reactant in reactions catalyzed by enzymes
Activation Energy
The energy required to produce a chemical reaction
Nucleic Acids
Composed of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and phosphorus, and is the largest molecule in the body, and have two major classes, Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
Nucleotides
The structural units of nucleic acid
5 Types of Nucleotide Structure:
Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C), Thymine (T), and Uracil (U)
Double Helix
The form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent polynucleotide strands wound into a spiral shape.
Complementary Bases
Two bases that pair together. A is complementary to T and C is complementary to G.
Adenosine Triphosphate
ATP Molecule in cells that stores and releases chemical energy for use in body cells. ATP plays a role in rigor mortis.
ADP
(Adenosine Diphosphate) The compound that remains when a phosphate group is removed from ATP, releasing energy
Chemical Properties are Determined primarily by Neutrons? T/F?
False
RNA
A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually single-stranded; functions in protein synthesis and as the genome of some viruses.
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