Pathophysiology – Chapter 7 – Blood and Blood-Forming Organs Diseases and Disorders

erythrocytopenia
A deficiency of red blood cells.

anemia
Any decrease in oxygen carrying ability of the red blood cell; low or decreased red blood cell (RBC) volume.

erythrocytosis
A condition of increased red blood cells.

leukocytopenia
A decrease in white blood cell count.

neutropenia
A decrease in neutrophils.

lymphopenia
A decrease in lymphocytes.

leukocytosis
An increase in white blood cell count.

thrombocytopenia
A decrease in platelets, leading to a coagulation problem.

petechiae
Small hemorrhages in the skin.

ecchymoses
Large areas of bruising.

epistaxis
Nosebleeds.

thrombocytosis
An increase in platelets.

complete blood count (CBC)
Identifies the number of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets per cubic milliliter, and can be used in the determination of most blood diseases.

differential
A detailed white blood cell count identifying the number of each type of leukocyte.

hemocrit (Hct)
A measurement of the amount of red cell mass as a proportion of whole blood.

hemoglobin (Hgb)
A measurement of the amount of hemoglobin or oxygen-carrying potential available in the blood.

MCV
Mean corpuscular volume; reflects average size of the red cell.

MCH
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin; reflects average hemoglobin content.

MCHC
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration; reflects average hemoglobin concentration.

bleeding time test
A test to determine the bleeding time or time it takes the blood to clot.

hemolyzed
Broken down cells.

pallor
Lack of color; paleness.

dyspnea
Difficulty breathing.

tachycardia
Fast heart rate.

tachypnea
Fast breathing; a severely increased respiratory rate.

syncope
Fainting.

pancytopenia
Severe decrease or total absence of erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes.

leukemia
A malignant neoplasm of the blood-forming organs (bone marrow, lymph nodes and spleen).

Reed-Sternberg cell
A large connective tissue cell found in lymphatic tissue indicative of Hodgkin’s disease.

hypercalcemia
Excessive blood calcium levels.

Bence Jones protein
A special protein found in the blood and urine, indicative of multiple myeloma.

hemarthrosis
Bleeding into joints.

purpura
Purplish color of the skin caused by hemorrhaging.

hematuria
Blood in the urine.

hematemesis
Vomiting of blood.

hypovolemia
Low or decreased blood volume.

blood-forming organs
1) lymph nodes, 2) bone marrow, 3) spleen, 4) liver

Phases of blood coagulation
Phase 1: blood clots at site of injury.
Phase 2: prothrombin is converted to thrombin in the presence of calcium.
Phase 3: thrombin and fibrinogen form fibrin and a clot is formed.
Phase 4: the clot is removed through the process of fibrinolysis

blood classifications
1) the antigens in red blood cells,
2) the antibodies in the plasma.

What is the most common disease of the system?
anemia

What makes up the hematologic system?
Blood and blood-forming organs.

What are the functions of the hematologic system?
1) transport necessary nutrients to the cells,
2) aids in the removal of wastes,
3) transports hormones

What is blood made up of?
Blood is made up of plasma and the formed elements, which include red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.

What is the main function of the lymph system in the hematologic system?
The lymph system protects against pathogens.

What is the main function of bone marrow in the hematologic system?
The bone marrow produces blood cells.

What are the main functions of the spleen in the hematologic system?
The spleen produces lymphocytes, plasma cells, and antibodies to filter microorganisms from blood.

What are the main functions of the liver in the hematologic system?
The liver produces prothrombin and fibrinogen for blood clotting.

What are the main functions of erythrocytes?
The erythrocytes (red cells) transport oxygen from the lungs to the tissues.

What is the main function of hemoglobin?
Hemoglobin, a component of the red cell, is important in the transport of oxygen by erythrocytes.

What is the main function of leukocytes?
Leukocytes (white cells) are concerned with protecting against individual infections.

What is the main function of platelets?
Platelets produce thrombokinase used in the clotting process.

What are the common diagnostic tests for blood and blood-forming disorders?
Complete blood count, biopsy of the blood-forming organs, and bleeding times.

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