Paper and Paperboard Packaging-Midterm 2-Corrugated Board Materials

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Raw Materials for Corrugated Boxes
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Containerboard Corrugating Adhesive Miscellaneous Raw Materials at the Corrugator Materials for Forming Box Joints Printing Inks
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Misc Raw Materials at the Corrugator
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Corrugated packaging products can be developed to have much functionality. Corrugated board can be saturated with wax to yield significant wet strength properties. Can be coated with wax to yield water resistance or scruff resistance properties Can be coated with a variety of water based polymer coatings to yield water, grease and scruff resistance various string and tape products can be inserted into the corrugated board structure to ADD strength for various box performance needs, or to yield easy opening features for the final package
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Skid Resistance
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(misc raw materials at the corrugator) other water-based coatings can yield increased coefficient of friction properties for skid resistance
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Materials for Forming Box Joints
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joints are formed using adhesives. most common type of adhesive is a polymer (45-55%)/water mixture These adhesives form a bond through drying of the adhesive (absorbed by the board) A small percentage of glued joints are formed using 100% solids hot melt adhesives
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\”manufacturers’ joint\”
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tab extension on one panel which is glued to the adjacent panel to create a closed four sided container so called because it is accomplished by the manufacturer of the package Some are created through the use of metal stitches or through the application of adhesive tape at the meeting of panels one and four
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\”post print\”
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most corrugated board is printed in the converting operation in the box plant. occurs after the corrugated board is formed Ranges from simple one color line art to sophisticated three and four-color process art
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\”preprint\”
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some liner board is printed before it arrives at the corrugator. Is generally very sophisticated four colors or more process art
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Litho Lamination (Offset)
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printing inks for retail packaging of smaller volumes Allows more possibilities in achieving great detail in graphics Can also use water based or UV coating for high luster finish
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Printing Inks
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the vast majority of ink for corrugated printing is water based. the solids content of liquid inks is roughly 50% and consists of pigments, dyes, carrier resins and other functional additives Inks come in the full array of colors seen on the shelves of retail stores
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Corrugated Board Structure
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1. Board Types 2. Flute Types 3. Convention for Identifying Corrugated Board Structure 3. Standard Corrugated Board Grades
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Single Face Board
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A linerboard is bonded to only one side of the fluted medium
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Single Wall
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a fluted medium having a flat liner board glued to each side *accounts for approx 90% of the corrugated board market
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Double Wall
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consists of two fluted mediums and three liner boards Used to package heavy products with challenging stacking and handling environments *accounts for 8-9% of the corrugated market
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Triple Wall
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Most commonly used in large packages for bulk shipment of products such as plastic pellets or raw rubber
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Fluting
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the term given to the thickness of different boards In the corrugating process, the fluting of the medium results in more than one linear foot of medium being used in each linear foot of corrugated board
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take-up factor
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the actual feet of medium in one linear foot of corrugated ex: the take-up factor for C-flute is about 1.43; so 1.43 linear feet of medium go into each linear foot of corrugated board
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A-flute
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1870s, early use as single face to wrap fragile products and pads, most common flute in Japan today
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B-flute
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invented to improve crush resistance for reduction in product damage to heavy products
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C-flute
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1930s, invented as a compromise between A and B flutes, most dominant flute worldwide, accounts for 60% or more of today’s market
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Microflutes E, F, N
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late 1980s, development of printing processes to print sophisticated graphics, needed smoother facing surfaces, more protection than paperboard
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Convention for Identifying Corrugated Board Structure
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when describing the individual components of corrugated board, convention calls for each component to be identified in an order that starts from the outside of the box and ends at the inside of the board -when single wall corrugated board is manufactured from its three components, the first liner board is applied to the medium by a single facer and the second by a double facer (backer) -the liner board applied by the double facer most commonly becomes the outside of the box because it presents a better surface for printing
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Standard Corrugated Board Grades
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Railroads and truck-lines guarantee delivery of the products they ship in good condition Because of this, the carriers have defined standards that packaging must meet in order for them to accept liability when damage does occur. Over the years, this has resulted in the development of two parallel series of standard grades of corrugated board. Each of these sets of grades is defined by a strength characteristic of corrugated board
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\”Burst\” grades
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Also called Mullen grades (standard corrugated board grades) were defined in the early part of the 20th century. it is related to the puncture resistance of the sidewalls of a corrugated box. when boxes were frequently handled individually during handling and shipping, puncture was a more frequent hazard than it is from today’s unitized loads of boxes, which have little chance of individual boxes being dropped or impacted
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ECT grades
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(standard corrugated board grades) carriers accepted a second and parallel set of grades in the early 1990s Were accepted to take advantage of advances in paper making technology that occurred in the 1980s. EDGE CRUSH TEST is a measure of the column strength of corrugated board. It is related to the stacking potential of a corrugated box and is reported in pounds force per inch Move toward a PERFORMANCE BASED STANDARD and allows for increased flexibility in selecting the weights of liner and medium used in any given packaging application. Does not measure actual performance of the container, but is at least directly related to stacking strength potential of the container Stacking strength is often an important performance characteristic of corrugated containers
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Terminology for describing standard corrugated board grades
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Identifies the strength (burst or ECT), the flute type and board structure For Burst grades-one would say 200-pound test C-flute single wall or 250-pound test B/C-flute double wall For ECT grades, one would say 32 ECT C-flute single wall or 51 ECT B/C flute double wall
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RSC
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\”regular slotted container\”–most common corrugated box The workhorse of the family of corrugated boxes as its usage as a package far outstrips any other design. Corrugator: flutes medium, bonds liner board to the medium, applies scores to the board, slits and cuts the board into sheets Blank corrugated sheet is fed into a flexo-folder gluer. This machine performs a series of functions in rapid succession to create a knocked down (KD) regular slotted container (RSC). This processed flat sheet continues its flow through the flex-folder gluer into the folding and gluing section. When the resulting knocked down box is set up it forms an RSC.
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Dimensions of RSC
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The RSC is a four-sided box, which has all 8 flaps of equal width. When the box is closed, the width flaps are folded first and do not meet. The length flaps are folded second and DO MEET when fully closed to result in a completely enclosed package. The scores created on the corrugator are sometimes referred to as end scores (on end flaps)
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Glued Manufacturer’s Joints
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higher strength and rate of productivity better for rough handling higher tensile strengths strength can be increased by increasing the width of the tab placed inside the box, does not interfere with the printing less chance for scratching the product less likelihood of personal injury
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Stitched Manufacturer’s Joints
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Preferable for containers subjected to liquid or water preferable on waxed board required on weather resistant boxes for US Government Objectionable when used with food products May interfere with printing layout Might scratch a product with a finely finished surface May cause wrinkles and permit the corner of the box to fold on the line of stitches
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Taped Manufacturer’s Joints
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Does not have a tab KD boxes lie flatter in tied bundles Inside of the box is smoother Provides convenient means of easily opening the box Interferes with some print layouts More expensive than glue
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Convention for Identifying RSCs
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Boxes are described by their: Size Grade Flute Style ex: 18 x 12 x 10 (inside L x W x H), 200 lb test, C-flute RSC
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What are the dimensions of a box described based on?
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The opening of an assembled box, which can be located on the top or the side, depending on how it is to be filled Pads, liners, partition pieces, die-cut pads, scored blanks and sheets of corrugated with only two dimensions have their size specified with the first dimension parallel to the corrugations
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Box Closure
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RSCs are closed after filling with product at the packager’s location. Boxes may be closed with adhesive, metal staples, or paper sealing tape. Adhesives are the most common form of closure material
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RSC
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Regular slotted containers

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