Overview of grand nursing theories

question

relationships among levels of theory
answer

question

Grand Nursing Theories
answer

-Most complex and widest in scope of the levels of theory -Attempt to explain broad areas within the discipline
question

Grand nursing theory characteristics
answer

-Composed of relatively abstract concepts -Developed through thoughtful appraisal of existing ideas -May incorporate other theories
question

Ways of categorizing grand theories
answer

-Categorization based on *scope* -Categorization based on *nursing domains* -Categorization based on *paradigms*
question

Categorization Based on Scope
answer

-Simplest ways to categorize -can be classified under multiple categories Examples: -Philosophies (Nightingale and Watson) -Nursing conceptual models (Levine, Rogers, Neuman, Roy) -Nursing Theories (Pender, Neuman, Parse) -Middle Range Theories
question

Categorization Based on Nursing Domains
answer

Meleis (2012) categories based on schools of thought: -Needs theorists (Abdellah, Henderson, Orem) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O_ie_504B7U -Interaction theorists (King, Orlando, Paterson & Zderad, Peplau, Travelbee, and Weidenbach) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eybeyvpSOBA -Outcome theorists (Johnson, Levine, Rogers, and Roy) -Caring/becoming (Watson & Parse)
question

Categorization Based on Paradigms
answer

Paradigm is a worldview or an overall way of looking at a discipline and its science Three nursing scholars categorized nursing theories based on paradigms or worldviews: -Parse -Neuman -Fawcett
question

Newman’s Categorization
answer

Three categorizations of theories based loosely on the existing philosophies Substance of the theory – Way in which change occurs 1. Particulate-Deterministic School (positivism) Nightingale, Orem, Orlando, Peplau 2. Interactive-Integrative School (postpositivism) Patterson, Roy, Watson, Erickson 3. Unitary-Transformative School (humanism) Rogers, Parse
question

Particulate-Deterministic School (positivism)
answer

linear causal- we can measure blood pressure for ex.-eg. looking at cytokine levels: a physiologic indicator of stress; looking at concrete outcomes;stess causes high bp; linear -Phenomena are isolatable, reducible with definable properties that can be measured -Orderly and predictable connectedness to each other -Change consequence of antecedent conditions -Relationships linear and causal -Kinds of knowledge sought are facts and universal laws -Caring could be studied as a therapeutic intervention affecting patients’ health in terms of measureable responses.
question

Interactive-Integrative School (postpositivism)
answer

-things that can affect situation; focused on measure but instead of linear relationships you can have them going in both directions-ie. Stress and pain; stress can contribute to pain but pain can also contribute to stress; Looks at context- was family present? Can have an affect on context that contribute to stress concept -An extension of the particulate-deterministic perspective that takes in to account context and experience and legitimizes subjective data. -Phenomena have multiple, interrelated parts in relation to a specific context. -Change in a phenomenon is a function of multiple antecedent factors and probabilistic relationships. -Relationships may be reciprocal. -Caring could be studied as a therapeutic intervention affecting patients’ health in terms of measureable responses, but taking in to account the context of the situation.
question

Unitary-Transformative School (humanism)
answer

-view of the individual as a whole being with the connection to the environemnt rather than just being part of the context, there is a connect, about describing their experience or situation- CANNOT compare it to linear because it is what it is. -Significant paradigm shift -Phenomenon is viewed as a unitary, self-organizing field embedded in a larger self-organizing field. -Interpenetration of fields within fields. -Change is unpredictable as systems move through stages of organization and disorganization to more complex organization. -Knowledge is personal, and is a function of the viewer and the phenomenon being viewed. -Subject matter is thoughts, values, feelings, choices and purpose. -Caring in the human health experience would be studies as a unitary-transformative process of mutuality and creative unfolding. -Difficult to characterize…an example could be the understanding of the synchrony and the mutuality of nurse-client encounters that transcend the time and space limitations of the present situation.
question

Fawcett’s Categorization
answer

-Based on treatment of change in each theory 1. Reaction-Nightingale, Abdellah, Henderson (LESS CONCRETE) 2. Reciprocal interaction- Orem, King, Neuman, Johnson, Levine (-broad and abstract; how change happens simultaneoulsy; change happens when the action happens) 3. Simultaneous action-Parse, Watson, Newman, Rogers (predictable in reaction)
question

When a theory is categorized based on philosophies, nursing models, nursing theories, theories, and middle range nursing theories; this is considered categorization based on which of the following?
answer

A. Scope* B. Nursing Domains C. Paradigms D. Theoretical Background
question

In the second classification of nursing theories, based on nursing process of interaction, which of the following nurse theorists did Meleis include?
answer

A. King B. Orlando C. Paterson & Zderad D. All of the above*
question

Analysis Criteria for Grand Theories
answer

7 Criteria Chosen for Use: -Background of the theorist -Philosophical underpinnings of the theory -Major assumptions, concepts, and relationships -Usefulness -Testability -Parsimony (complexity/how understandable) -Value in Extending Nursing Science All of the grand theories come from them; this is why we should know there history; why they came up with their theories.

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member