Organisms

ADP
This is short for adenosine diphosphate. An organic compound that is composed of adenosine and two phosphate groups. With the addition of another phosphate group, it is converted to ATP for the storage of energy during cell metabolism. It then forms again, from ATP, when a phosphate group is removed to release energy
Analogous Structures
These are structures which are similar in different organisms because they evolved in a similar environment, yet do not have a common ancestor.
Anatomy
This is the science that studies the structure and organization of bodies.
Ancestor
These are parents, parents of parents, etc.
Animalia
A major group of organisms, that are, in general, multicellular, capable of locomotion and responsive to their environment, and feed by consuming other organisms.
Archaebacteria
This is the kingdom of unicellular prokaryotes that have cell walls without peptidoglycan.
Asexual Reproduction
Process by which a single parent reproduces by itself.
ATP
This is the main energy storage and transfer molecule in the cell.
ATP Cycle
This is the name applied to the cycle by which ATP are broken down to ADP with the release of energy, and the regeneration of ATP from ADP through the process of phosphorylation.
Autotroph
This is an organism that obtains its energy from inorganic substances or from the sun.
Autotrophic Cycle
A cell that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds.
Bacteria
One celled organisms that reproduce by fission
Biological Evolution
This is the process by which organisms acquire traits through sexual reproduction and/or mutation and then pass on these traits to the succeeding generations.
Body Symmetry
This is a characteristic of multicellular organisms, particularly animals. A bilateral organism is one that is uniform about a plane running from its frontal end to its caudal end (head to tail), and has nearly identical right and left halves.
Capsid
This is the protein shell of a virus.
Carbohydrate
This is a compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; it is used by cells to store and release energy. Sugars are made by chloroplasts through photosynthesis and consumed by mitochondria through cell respiration.
Carbon Dioxide
This is the gas produced as a result of respiration.
Cell
This is the structural and functional unit of all living organisms, and are sometimes called the “building blocks of life.”
Cell Membrane
A thin, flexible, semipermeable barrier around the cell which regulates what enters and leaves the cell.
Cell Theory
States that all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic unit of life, and cells come from pre-existing cells.
Cell Wall
This structure provides support and protection for plant cells.
Cellular Respiration
This is the process that releases energy by breaking down food molecules in the presence of oxygen.
Chemical Energy
Energy stored in chemical bonds of molecules.
Chlorophyll
This is a green pigment in chloroplasts that traps light energy from the sun.
Cladogram
This is a diagram which shows the evolutionary relationships among groups of organisms.
Classification
Placing an organism in sets of categories based on its characteristics.
Comparative Anatomy
This is the study of similar and different structures in organisms.
Consumer
This is an organism that relies on other organisms for its food and energy supply; also called a heterotroph.
Decomposer
This is an organism that breaks down and gains nutrients from dead organisms.
Descent
In evolution, ________ describes the appearance of new species from ancestors. Species which share ancestors are said to have a “common ________.”
DNA
This holds an organisms hereditary information.
Domain
In the new system of classification, this is the broadest level of classification. A higher rank than kingdom in the old classification system.
Domain Archaea
This is a prokaryotic domain no nuclear membrane, distinct biochemistry and RNA markers from eubacteria, that possess unique ancient evolutionary history for which they are considered some of the oldest species of organisms on Earth; traditionally classified as archaebacteria; often characterized by living in extreme environments.
Domain Bacteria
This is a domain of prokaryotic cells possessing diacyl glycerol diester lipids in their membranes, bacterial rRNA, no nuclear membrane, and are traditionally classified as bacteria.
Domain Eukarya
This is the domain containing all organisms with eukaryotic cells.
Embryology
This is the study of the early development of an organism, and it is quite often used to show similarities and differences between different organisms in their early stages of development.
Energy Transformation
This is the process of changing energy from one form to another. Solar energy is changed into chemical energy by plants.
Eubacteria
This is the kingdom of unicellular prokaryotes that have cell walls with peptidoglycan.
Eukaryote
These are cells where the genetic material is contained in membrane-bound nuclei.
Evidence
This is data from an experiment, which is used to verify or reject the original hypothesis in the conclusion.
Evolution
This is a change in the genetic makeup of a population or species over time.
Fossil
This is the mineralized remains of plants or animals.
Fossil Record
This is the chronicle of evolution over millions of years of geologic time engraved in the order which fossils appear in rock strata.
Fungi
This is the kingdom of heterotrophs that obtain energy and nutrients from dead and decaying organic matter.
Genetic Variation
This is one result of gamete formation through meiosis and fertilization during sexual reproduction that promotes biodiversity within a species.
Geologic Time
This is used by scientists to measure time and events during Earth’s history.
Glucose
This is a simple sugar that provides energy to organisms.
Halophile
This is a salt-loving prokaryotic member of the domain Archaea.
Heterotroph
This is an organism that relies on complex organic substances for nutrition.
Heterotrophic Cell
A cell that can not produce its own energy, the energy must be consumed.
Homologous Structures
These are physical features shared by organisms with common ancestry; they may have the same structure, but different functions developmentally mature organisms.
Law of Superposition
This law states that in an undisturbed rock sequence, the oldest layers are on the bottom and each successive layer is younger than the one underneath it.
“Sedimentary layers are deposited in a time sequence, with the oldest on the bottom and the youngest on the top.”
Light Dependent
This is a chemical reaction in a plant that converts solar to chemical energy.
Light Independent Reactions
This is a series of biochemical reactions in photosynthesis that do not require light to proceed and produce the organic molecule, glucose, from carbon dioxide.
Lysogenic
This is a viral replication cycle in which the virus’s nucleic acid is integrated into the host cells chromosome. A provirus is formed and replicated each time the host cell reproduces; the host cell is not killed until the lytic cycle is activated.
Lytic
This is one of two stages in viral reproduction. It is considered the main method of viral replication, since it results in the destruction of the infected cell.
Metabolism
These are all biochemical processes of an organism.
Mitochondrion
An organelle found in most eukaryotic cells described as “cellular power plants”, because their primary function is to convert organic materials into energy in the form of ATP
Multicellular
Organisms consisting of more than one cell, and having differentiated cells that perform specialized functions. Most life that can be seen with the naked eye is this.
Organelle
This is any functional structure within the confines of a cell; literally a. “small organ;” it usually has a membrane-based structure
Organism
Any living thing with one or more cells
Oxygen Cycle
These are the components of the reservoirs of oxygen that are exchanged in our environment.
Parasite
This is an organism which feeds on, but usually does not kill, a larger organism.
Photosynthesis
This is a chemical process that uses light to process carbon dioxide in plants.
Phylogeny
This is the evolutionary history of a species or group of related species.
Plant
This is any living thing without the power of locomotion that obtain energy from sunlight or make their own food.
Plant Cell
This kind of cell has a large central vacuole and a cell wall.
Producer
This is an organism that supplies matter and energy, also known as an autotroph.
Prokaryote
These are organisms where the genetic material is not bound by a nucleus. They are usually unicellular.
Protein Sequencing
This is the comparison of amino acid sequences in proteins. A close match of the amino acid sequences in comparable proteins in different species indicates that those proteins evolved from a common ancestor.
Protists
These are living organisms; simple eukaryotes; they may be single-cellular, colonial or multicellular.
Protozoan
This is an animal-like single-celled eukaryote that lacks a cell wall, is a heterotroph, and is usually mobile.
Radial Symmetry
A description of body type in multicellular organisms. The organism will demonstrate the same shape around an axis.
Relative Dating
This is a way to estimate the order of geologic events by using rock layers, index fossils, or other methods.
Reproduction
This is the biological process of creating a new organism.
Response
This is a biological reaction due to a stimulus.
RNA
A single stranded nucleic acid that plays a role in protein synthesis.
Sexual Reproduction
Process by which two cells from different parents unite to produce the first cell of a new organism.
Six Kingdom System
This is the newest classification system with the highest rank of domain, followed by kingdom. There are three domains; one eukaryotic domain and two prokaryotic domains.
Solar Energy
This is the utilization of radiation from the sun.
Speciation
This is the origin of a new species in evolution, there are many different methods by which this can occur. Different species cannot reproduce successfully.
Species
These are groups of reproducing populations that are isolated from other groups.
Thermophile
This is an organism that thrives at high temperatures, between 45 and 80 oC.
Trace Fossil
This is a fossil that provides evidence of the existence of an ancient organism.
Unicellular
Literally, one-celled.
Vestigial Structure
This has been reduced in size, usually, over time and has less important function in some related organisms than in others.
Virus
A microscopic parasite that infects cells in biological organisms. They reproduce only by invading and controlling other cells as they lack the cellular machinery for self-reproduction.