Organic Chemistry year 11

question

What is a single bond called?
answer

Alkane
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Are single bonds saturated or unsaturated?
answer

saturated
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Are double/triple bonds saturated or unsaturated?
answer

unsaturated
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What is a double bond called?
answer

Alkene
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What is a triple bond called?
answer

Alkyne
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What is the formula for single bonds?
answer

CnH2n+2
question

What is the formula for double bonds?
answer

CnH2n
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What is the formula for Triple bonds?
answer

CnH2n-2
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What reactions do alkanes have?
answer

Combustion reactions
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What is the formula for an alkane reaction?
answer

alkane + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water
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What reactions do alkenes have?
answer

Combustion and addition reactions
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What does the addition of Hydrogen do to alkenes?
answer

Makes them turn into alkanes
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An example of a alkene addition reaction?
answer

ethene + H2 = ethane
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What does the addition of halogens do to alkenes?
answer

ethene + bromine = 1,2 dibromo ethane
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What reactions do alkyenes have?
answer

combustion and addition reaction
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What do you need in order for an addition reaction to occur for alkynes
answer

needs 2 halogens
question

What is a monosaccharide?
answer

A simple carbohydrate Glucose, Fructose, Galactose (C6H12O6)
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What is a disaccharide?
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‘double carbohydrate’ 2 x monosaccharides Through a condensation reaction 2C6H12O6 = (enzyme) C12H22O11 + H2O
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What is a polysaccharide?
answer

‘complex carbohydrate’ – lots of monosaccharides through a condensation reaction Starch, Cellulose nC6H12O6 = (enzyme) (C6H10O5)n + nH2O
question

What is the fermentation reaction equation?
answer

Glucose ——-> (enzyme) ethanol + carbon dioxide C6H12O6 ——–> 2CH3CH2OH + 2CO2
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What do alcohol classifications (primary, secondary, tertiary) mean?
answer

It describes how many carbon atoms are attached to the hydroxyl bearing carbon
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What is a carboxylic acid?
answer

A weak acid that results in a sour taste, smells bad
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What do carboxylic acids contain?
answer

The carboxyil group (COOH)
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What are carboxylic acids called?
answer

—-oic acid
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What is the first carbon in carboxylic acids?
answer

The carbon in the carboxylic acid
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What does a carboxylic acid do when it reacts to a base?
answer

Makes a salt + water
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What does a carboxylic acid do when it reacts to a alcohol?
answer

Creates an ester
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How is an ester formed?
answer

With a reaction of an alcohol and a base to create the ester and water
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How do you name a ester?
answer

First word: —yl, comes from alcohol Second word: — oate from carboxylic acid
question

Melting and boiling points in organic chemistry?
answer

Have low melting and boiling points Because organic molecules are held by intermolecular forces which are weak and are easy to break The larger the molecule, the higher the melting and boiling point is If an OH group is present there are hydrogen bonds, making the boiling and melting points higher
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Volatility in organic chemistry?
answer

Have high volatility Because have weaker bonds therefore easy to break The larger the molecule, the lower the volatility If an OH group is present there are hydrogen bonds, making the volatility lower
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Solubility in organic chemistry?
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The smaller the carbon chain the more soluble it is because dispersion forces are weaker If there is an alcohol present more soluble because hydrogen bonds can be made easier
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Oxidation of primary alcohols
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Cr2O7 2-/ H (warm) Cr2O7 2-/ H (warm) ————————–> Aldehyde————————–> Carboxylic acid O || (RCH)
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Oxidation of secondary alcohols
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O Cr2O7 2-/ H (warm) || ————————-> ketone (R-C-R)
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Oxidation of Tertiary alcohols
answer

No reaction

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