Organic Chemistry year 11

question
What is a single bond called?
answer
Alkane
question
Are single bonds saturated or unsaturated?
answer
saturated
question
Are double/triple bonds saturated or unsaturated?
answer
unsaturated
question
What is a double bond called?
answer
Alkene
question
What is a triple bond called?
answer
Alkyne
question
What is the formula for single bonds?
answer
CnH2n+2
question
What is the formula for double bonds?
answer
CnH2n
question
What is the formula for Triple bonds?
answer
CnH2n-2
question
What reactions do alkanes have?
answer
Combustion reactions
question
What is the formula for an alkane reaction?
answer
alkane + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water
question
What reactions do alkenes have?
answer
Combustion and addition reactions
question
What does the addition of Hydrogen do to alkenes?
answer
Makes them turn into alkanes
question
An example of a alkene addition reaction?
answer
ethene + H2 = ethane
question
What does the addition of halogens do to alkenes?
answer
ethene + bromine = 1,2 dibromo ethane
question
What reactions do alkyenes have?
answer
combustion and addition reaction
question
What do you need in order for an addition reaction to occur for alkynes
answer
needs 2 halogens
question
What is a monosaccharide?
answer
A simple carbohydrate Glucose, Fructose, Galactose (C6H12O6)
question
What is a disaccharide?
answer
'double carbohydrate' 2 x monosaccharides Through a condensation reaction 2C6H12O6 = (enzyme) C12H22O11 + H2O
question
What is a polysaccharide?
answer
'complex carbohydrate' - lots of monosaccharides through a condensation reaction Starch, Cellulose nC6H12O6 = (enzyme) (C6H10O5)n + nH2O
question
What is the fermentation reaction equation?
answer
Glucose -------> (enzyme) ethanol + carbon dioxide C6H12O6 --------> 2CH3CH2OH + 2CO2
question
What do alcohol classifications (primary, secondary, tertiary) mean?
answer
It describes how many carbon atoms are attached to the hydroxyl bearing carbon
question
What is a carboxylic acid?
answer
A weak acid that results in a sour taste, smells bad
question
What do carboxylic acids contain?
answer
The carboxyil group (COOH)
question
What are carboxylic acids called?
answer
----oic acid
question
What is the first carbon in carboxylic acids?
answer
The carbon in the carboxylic acid
question
What does a carboxylic acid do when it reacts to a base?
answer
Makes a salt + water
question
What does a carboxylic acid do when it reacts to a alcohol?
answer
Creates an ester
question
How is an ester formed?
answer
With a reaction of an alcohol and a base to create the ester and water
question
How do you name a ester?
answer
First word: ---yl, comes from alcohol Second word: --- oate from carboxylic acid
question
Melting and boiling points in organic chemistry?
answer
Have low melting and boiling points Because organic molecules are held by intermolecular forces which are weak and are easy to break The larger the molecule, the higher the melting and boiling point is If an OH group is present there are hydrogen bonds, making the boiling and melting points higher
question
Volatility in organic chemistry?
answer
Have high volatility Because have weaker bonds therefore easy to break The larger the molecule, the lower the volatility If an OH group is present there are hydrogen bonds, making the volatility lower
question
Solubility in organic chemistry?
answer
The smaller the carbon chain the more soluble it is because dispersion forces are weaker If there is an alcohol present more soluble because hydrogen bonds can be made easier
question
Oxidation of primary alcohols
answer
Cr2O7 2-/ H (warm) Cr2O7 2-/ H (warm) --------------------------> Aldehyde--------------------------> Carboxylic acid O || (RCH)
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Oxidation of secondary alcohols
answer
O Cr2O7 2-/ H (warm) || -------------------------> ketone (R-C-R)
question
Oxidation of Tertiary alcohols
answer
No reaction
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question
What is a single bond called?
answer
Alkane
question
Are single bonds saturated or unsaturated?
answer
saturated
question
Are double/triple bonds saturated or unsaturated?
answer
unsaturated
question
What is a double bond called?
answer
Alkene
question
What is a triple bond called?
answer
Alkyne
question
What is the formula for single bonds?
answer
CnH2n+2
question
What is the formula for double bonds?
answer
CnH2n
question
What is the formula for Triple bonds?
answer
CnH2n-2
question
What reactions do alkanes have?
answer
Combustion reactions
question
What is the formula for an alkane reaction?
answer
alkane + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water
question
What reactions do alkenes have?
answer
Combustion and addition reactions
question
What does the addition of Hydrogen do to alkenes?
answer
Makes them turn into alkanes
question
An example of a alkene addition reaction?
answer
ethene + H2 = ethane
question
What does the addition of halogens do to alkenes?
answer
ethene + bromine = 1,2 dibromo ethane
question
What reactions do alkyenes have?
answer
combustion and addition reaction
question
What do you need in order for an addition reaction to occur for alkynes
answer
needs 2 halogens
question
What is a monosaccharide?
answer
A simple carbohydrate Glucose, Fructose, Galactose (C6H12O6)
question
What is a disaccharide?
answer
'double carbohydrate' 2 x monosaccharides Through a condensation reaction 2C6H12O6 = (enzyme) C12H22O11 + H2O
question
What is a polysaccharide?
answer
'complex carbohydrate' - lots of monosaccharides through a condensation reaction Starch, Cellulose nC6H12O6 = (enzyme) (C6H10O5)n + nH2O
question
What is the fermentation reaction equation?
answer
Glucose -------> (enzyme) ethanol + carbon dioxide C6H12O6 --------> 2CH3CH2OH + 2CO2
question
What do alcohol classifications (primary, secondary, tertiary) mean?
answer
It describes how many carbon atoms are attached to the hydroxyl bearing carbon
question
What is a carboxylic acid?
answer
A weak acid that results in a sour taste, smells bad
question
What do carboxylic acids contain?
answer
The carboxyil group (COOH)
question
What are carboxylic acids called?
answer
----oic acid
question
What is the first carbon in carboxylic acids?
answer
The carbon in the carboxylic acid
question
What does a carboxylic acid do when it reacts to a base?
answer
Makes a salt + water
question
What does a carboxylic acid do when it reacts to a alcohol?
answer
Creates an ester
question
How is an ester formed?
answer
With a reaction of an alcohol and a base to create the ester and water
question
How do you name a ester?
answer
First word: ---yl, comes from alcohol Second word: --- oate from carboxylic acid
question
Melting and boiling points in organic chemistry?
answer
Have low melting and boiling points Because organic molecules are held by intermolecular forces which are weak and are easy to break The larger the molecule, the higher the melting and boiling point is If an OH group is present there are hydrogen bonds, making the boiling and melting points higher
question
Volatility in organic chemistry?
answer
Have high volatility Because have weaker bonds therefore easy to break The larger the molecule, the lower the volatility If an OH group is present there are hydrogen bonds, making the volatility lower
question
Solubility in organic chemistry?
answer
The smaller the carbon chain the more soluble it is because dispersion forces are weaker If there is an alcohol present more soluble because hydrogen bonds can be made easier
question
Oxidation of primary alcohols
answer
Cr2O7 2-/ H (warm) Cr2O7 2-/ H (warm) --------------------------> Aldehyde--------------------------> Carboxylic acid O || (RCH)
question
Oxidation of secondary alcohols
answer
O Cr2O7 2-/ H (warm) || -------------------------> ketone (R-C-R)
question
Oxidation of Tertiary alcohols
answer
No reaction