Organic Chemistry Exam 1

Flashcard maker : Ember Wagner
Constitutional Isomers
Share the same molecular formula but have different connectivity of atoms and different physical properties
Octet Rule
Second-row elements generally obey this rule; Bonding to achieve noble gas election configuration
A formal charge occurs when an atom does not exhibit the appropriate number of
Valence elections
Atomic Orbital
A region of space associated with AN INDIVIDUAL ATOM
Molecular Orbital
A region of space associated with AN ENTIRE MOLECULE
Methane’s tetrahedral geometry can be explained using four degenerate __-_______ ______ to achieve its four single bonds.
spĀ³-hybridized orbitals
Ethylene’s planar geometry can be explained using three degenerate __-______ ______.
spĀ²-hybridized orbitals
Acetylene’s linear geometry is achieved via __-______ ______ atoms.
sp-hybridized carbon
The geometry of small compounds can be predicted using valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory, which focuses on the number of ______ bonds and _____ _____ exhibited by each atom.
sigma; lone pairs
The physical properties of compounds are determined by __________ ______, the attractive forces between molecules.
intermolecular forces
________ __________ __________ result from the interaction between transient DIPOLE MOMENTS and are stronger for larger alkanes due to their larger surface area and ability to accommodate more interactions
London Dispersion Forces
Chemical reactions occur as a result of:
Motion of electrons
Constitutional isomers may NOT differ in what aspects?
Molecular formula
Which of the following structures represent compounds that are constitutional isomers?
All of the compounds are constitutional isomers. (same molecular formula, different connectivity & physical properties)
Carbon generally forms four bonds and is considered:
Tetravalent
A polar covalent bond is found in which of these compunds?
Hā‚‚O
Which of the following represents the best Lewis structure for ammonia, NHā‚ƒ?
3 hydrogen atoms, each attached to 1 nitrogen atom. Lone pair on nitrogen.
What is the formal charge on carbon in the following structure? 2 hydrogen atoms each attached to a carbon atom. Lone pair of electrons on carbon atom.
Select the LEAST electronegative elements from the list below:
P
N
Mg
Si
K
K
(The closer you get to F, fluorine, the MORE electronegative; the further from F, the LESS electronegative).
In molecular orbital (MO) theory, the molecular orbital of highest energy that is occupied with an electron is referred to as:
the HOMO.
The Ļƒ carbon-carbon bond indicated by the arrow in the following molecule results from the overlap of which orbitals (in the order left to right)?
(Double bond between 2 carbon atoms)
spĀ²-spĀ²
In BOND-LINE STRUCTURES, ____ atoms and most _____ atoms are not drawn.
Carbon; hydrogen
A _______ ____ is a characteristic group of atoms/bonds that show a predictable behavior.
functional group
When a carbon atom bears either a positive charge or a negative charge, it will have ____, rather than four, bonds.
three
In bond-line structures, a WEDGE represents a group _____ ___ the page, while a DASH represents a group _____ the page.
coming out; behind
______ _____ are tools for drawing resonance structures.
Curved arrows
When drawing curved arrows for resonance structures, avoid breaking a _____ bond and never exceed an _____ for a second row element.
single; octet
There are three rules for identifying significant resonance structures:
1) Minimize charge
2) Electronegative atoms can bear a positive charge, but only if they possess an octet of electrons
3) Avoid drawing a resonance structure in which two carbon atoms bear opposite charges
A _____ lone pair participates in resonance and is said to occupy a _ orbital.
delocalized; p
A ______ lone pair does not participate in resonance.
localized
A BrĆønsted-Lowry acid is a _____ ______.
proton donor
A BrĆønsted-Lowry base is a ______ _____.
proton acceptor
The mechanism of PROTON TRANSFER always involves at least ____ curved arrows.
two
A STRONG acid has a ___ pKa, while a weak acid has a ___ pKa.
low; high
There are four factors to consider when comparing the ______ of conjugate bases
stability
The equilibrium of an acid-base reaction always favors the more _____ negative charge.
stable
A LEWIS ACID is an electron _____, while a LEWIS BASE is an electron _____.
acceptor; donor

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