Organizational Behavior Example Flashcards

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General properties of organic compounds
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Organic Compounds: 1) Contain/based on carbon atoms: HONC 2) Low melting and boiling points 3) Non-polar molecules 4) NOT water soluble 5) Reactions occur slowly (example: oil- not water soluble, food- reactions in stomach occur slowly to digest)
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Molecular Formula
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Molecular formula (C₂H₆O): →tells us which elements →tells us how many
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Structural Formula
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Structural formula (looks like a map of the compound): →Shows us how atoms are arranged/bonded *Gives us much more information than other formulas
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Condensed Formula
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Condensed formula (CH₃CH₂OH) →COMBINATION of molecular/structural formulas
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Draw and name various hydrocarbons- including isomers (tables P and Q) a) Alkanes b) Alkenes c) Alkynes d) Saturated and Unsaturated
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Hydrocarbons: -compounds with ONLY hydrogen and carbon (example: fossil fuels) *If you want to know how to count carbon style, see table P -There are multiple types of hydrocarbons based upon the bonds that can be made between the carbon atoms: called alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, saturated and unsaturated
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*How to properly name/draw hydrocarbons:*
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Tips for naming/drawing hydrocarbons: -If it has isomers, check to see if it needs the “N-” in front of it *Read name given backwards and start from there when drawing! -The branches have to go on the LOWEST possible carbon number! -Use the general formula to figure out the number of hydrogens when carbons are given -Specify where the double/triple bonds in alkenes/alkynes are made by saying “1-” or “2-” in front -DON’T FORGET: the valence electrons on certain elements when drawing! Example: # on the branch (“yl” means branch) ↑ 2 methyl propane →how many carbons in a row/bond # ↓ place of the branch *if it says: “dimethyl”: means that there are TWO branches!
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Isomers
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-Same molecular formula, different structural formula (and different properties) →Use the line test to see if it is actually different (not just appearing to be different)
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Hydrocarbons
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Hydrocarbons: -compounds with ONLY hydrogen and carbon (example: fossil fuels)
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Alkanes
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Alkanes: -have all single bonds between carbon atoms General formula (all alkanes fit this, in reference table): CnH₂n+₂ *Make sure you distinguish between N-Butane and it’s isomers! (where N=normal) Examples: Methane, Ethane and Propane (think: can you draw these?)
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Alkenes
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Alkenes: -have 1 double bond between carbon atoms *DON’T FORGET: specify where the double bond is made by saying “1-” in front General Formula: CnH₂n Examples: Butene, Ethene
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Alkynes
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Alkynes: -have 1 triple bond between carbon atoms General Formula: CnH₂n₋₂ Examples: Ethyne, Butyne
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Saturated Hydrocarbon
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-Hydrocarbon with only single bonds (alkane) →How to remember: saturated fats are BAD for you, because it’s easier for the body to break them down because it’s a SINGLE bond…which means less fat is used in the process!
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Unsaturated Hydrocarbon
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Hydrocarbon with double/triple bonds (alkenes and alkynes) →How to remember: unsaturated fats are better for the body because they are harder to break down due to the double and triple bonds, meaning more fat is used to break them down!
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*H.O.N.C.*
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H: Hydrogen → 1 (can make one bond) O: Oxygen → 2 (can make two bonds) N: Nitrogen → 3 (can make three bonds) C: Carbon → 4 (can make four bonds)
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Functional groups
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-Specific groups of atoms/bonds within molecules; gives molecules characteristic chemical reaction (or IDENTITY) →What “gang” it belongs to
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Know how to use table R to classify, draw and name specific organic compounds
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*USE REFERENCE TABLE FOR MORE INFO -Halides -Alcohols (NOT AN ACID: NEUTRAL) -Ether -Adehydes -Ketones -Organic Acids -Esters -Amine -Amide
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Addition Reactions
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-Must have UNSATURATED hydrocarbons (alkenes and alkynes) H H Cl Cl C= C + Cl – CL → H-C-C-H H H H H *Chlorines MUST fill in the space and go: one on EACH carbon!
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Substitution Reactions
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-Must have SATURATED hydrocarbons (alkanes) -Both substituiton/saturation begin with a “s”… H H H Cl H + Br-Br → H-C-Br + H-Br H H
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Combustion Reactions (Oxidation)
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-Could be with ANY hydrocarbon *BUT the result is always: CO₂ +H₂O -MAKE SURE THEY ARE BALANCED!
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Polymerization
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1) Condensation polymerization 2) Addition polymerization *Involves monomer→POLYmer (one unit to many units) tiny → BIG Usually: monomer+monomer → polymer + water *Addition Polymerization: n( C=C ) → ( C-C ) n -Just need to show: we start with a lot, end with a lot too (but written in shorthand) →sequence repeated →breaks double bonds
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Types of polymers
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Natural Polymers: -Starch- sugars=the monomers (can digest=easy bonds) -DNA- nucleotides (A,C,T,G) -Protein- amino acids (20 types) -Cellulose- sugars= monomers (can’t digest b/c of bondage) Synthetic Polymers: -Nylon (NY+London)-fabric -Polythylene (Shoprite bags) -Polyester- fabric
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Fermentation
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-How alcoholic beverages are produced →ALL ARE MADE THE SAME WAY C₆H₁₂O₆ → C₂H₅OH + CO₂ (enzyme)
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Saponification
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-How soap is made (just think: start big) Fat + Strong Base → Soap + Glycerin
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Esterfication
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-How esters are produced Acid + Alcohol → Ester + Water

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