Organic Chemistry 1 – Nomenclature Essay

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IUPAC naming system
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What is the name of the system for naming organic molecules?
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Identify the longest C chain containing the highest priority functional groups
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What is the first step to the IUPAC naming system?
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Number the chain
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What is the next step after identifying the longest C chain?
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parent chain
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What is the name of the numbered chain?
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atoms besides C or H
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Define heteroatoms
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increase
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Does oxidation state of a C increase or decrease with more bonds?
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The C that is the most substituted
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Where is the numbering started on a hydrocarbon ring?:
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double bond
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If there is a tie in priority btwn a double and triple bond, which takes precedence?
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name the substituents
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What is the next step after numbering the chain?
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functional groups that aren’t part of the parent chain
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Define substituents
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normal
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What does the prefix n- mean?
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methyl
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ethyl
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n-propyl
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tert-butyl
tert-butyl
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neopentyl
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isopropyl
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sec-butyl
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isobutyl
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di- tri- tetra-
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If there are multiple of the same substituents, we use what prefixes? 2,3,4?
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Assign a number to each substituent
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What is the next step after naming the substituents?
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Complete the name
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What is the next step after assigning a number to each substituent?
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alphabetical
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What order do you put the substituents?
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ignore prefixes (di, tri, tetra, n-, tert-) don’t ignore roots that are part of the name (iso, neo, cylo)
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How do you know what prefixes to ignore?
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hyphen
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How do you separate numbers and words of substituents?
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comma
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How do you separate numbers and other numbers of substituents?
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methane ethane propane butane pentane hexane heptane octane nonane decane undecane dodecane
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Give the parent chain names for alkanes 1-12 C
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compounds that contain only C and H
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Define hydrocarbons
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contain at least one -OH group
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Define alcohols
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simple hydrocarbon molecules with formula CnH(2n+2)
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Define alkanes and give formula for determining # of C’s and H’s
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halogens as substituents
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Define alkyl halides
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fluor-
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What is the prefix for F as an alkyl halide?
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chloro-
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What is the prefix for Cl as an alkyl halide?
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bromo-
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What is the prefix for Br as an alkyl halide?
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iodo-
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What is the prefix for I as an alkyl halide?
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alkenes
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What are hydrocarbon chains called that contain a double bond?
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alkynes
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What are hydrocarbon chains called that contain a triplele bond?
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replace -e at end of name and add -ol
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How do you name an alcohol?
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hydroxy
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If an alcohol is a substituent, how is it named?
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ethanol
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aka ethyl alcohol
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2-propanol
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aka isopropyl alcohol
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diol
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What is a molecule called if it has 2 alcohols?
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diol is added to the end of the word ethane-1,2-diol
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How are diols named?
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diols with hydroxy groups on the same carbons
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Define germinal diol
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hydrates
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aka germinal diols
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diols with hydroxy groups on dif carbons
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Define vicinal diol
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carbonyl
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aldehyde
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ketone
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replace -e with -al
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How do you name aldehydes?
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formaldehyde
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Common name of methanal?
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acetaldehyde
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Common name of ethanal?
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propionaldehyde
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Common name of propanal?
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replace -ane with -one
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How do we name ketones?
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acetone
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aka propanone
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acetone
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What is the smallest possible ketone named?
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acetone
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oxo-
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If ketone or aldehyde is a substituent, what prefix do we use to name?
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keto-
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If ketone is a substituent, what other prefix could we use?
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aldehyde
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What takes precedence in parent name out of alcohol, ketone, and aldehyde?
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carboxylic acid
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C in COOH
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What is the most oxidized carbon you will encounter when naming?
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C in COOH
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Which C is the highest possible priority when naming?
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replace -e with -oic acid
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How do you name carboxylic acids?
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fromic acid
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aka methanoic acid
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acetic acid
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aka ethanoic acid
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propionic acid
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aka propanoic acd
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ester
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replace -e with -oate however many C’s come after O, put name of that before parent name
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How do you name esters?
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amide
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replace -e with amide
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How do we name amides?
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N-“name”
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How do we name substituents that may branch off of the nitrogen?
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anhydride
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replace acid (in -oic acid) with anhydride
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How do we name anhydrides?
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acetic annhydride
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aka ethanoic annhydride
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methyl formate
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aka methyl methanote

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