Ochem – Chemistry Test Questions

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What is the angle of sp3
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109.5
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What is the angle of sp2
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120
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Length of a single bond
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.154nm
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Length of a double bond
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.134nm
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What is hydrogenation
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The addition of hydrogen
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Aldehyde
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Formaldehyde
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What is a polar bond
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is a type of covalent bond two atoms or more in which electrons are shared unequally
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negative inductive effect
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An atom like fluorine which can pull the bonding pair away from the atom it is attached to
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Halide
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a compound of one of these – e.g. hydrogen chloride, hydrogen bromide, etc.
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electrophilic addition reactions
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An addition reaction is a reaction in which two molecules join together to make a bigger one
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Carbocation
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Carbon having a positive charge

 

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H2SO4
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Sn2 happens best when
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It is a primary alkyl halide
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What encourages Elimination
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heat, a concentrated solution of sodium or potassium hydroxide, pure ethanol as solvent
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What is a ketone
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markownikoff’s rule
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The rule states that with the addition of a protic acid HX to an alkene, the acid hydrogen (H) becomes attached to the carbon with fewer alkyl substituents, and the halide (X) group becomes attached to the carbon with more alkyl substituents
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Zaitsev’s rule
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In elimi nation reactions, the most substituted alkene
usually predominates.
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Hydroge natio n of an alkene is an example of
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addition
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Anti Markovnikov happens when
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Results when HBr is added with a peroxide; ROOR
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Oxymercuration-demercuration
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Hg(OAc)2 and NaBH4
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Hydroboration
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uses B2H6 to give anti markovnikov orientation for OH addition
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ether
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Grignard reactions need
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a solvent containing an ether functional group
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HBr with a peroxide is
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anti markovnikov
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Allylic position
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is a carbon atom next to a carbon double bond
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Protic Solvent
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protic solvent; is one that has acidic protons, usually in the form
of; 0- H; or; N -H; groups
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Aprotic Solvent
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aprotic; solvents; (solvents without 0- H; or
N – H; groups) enhance the nucleophilicity of anions. An anion is more reactive in an
aprotic solvent because it is not so strongly solvated
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Polar; aprotic; solvents;
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have; strong; dipole moments; to; enhance; solubility
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Sn1 Reaction
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The; SN 1; reaction goes much more readily; in polar solvents; that stabilize ions
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hydride shift
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Carbocations; often; rearrange; to; form; more; stable; carbocations.; This; may; occur
when; a hydrogen; atom; moves with; its bonding pair; of; electron s.; Formally,; this is the
movement of a; hydride ion; (H:-),; although no actual; free hydride ion; is involved.
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Hydride Shift
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methyl shift
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Nucleophilic Substitutions
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Give the substitution and elimination products you would expect from the following reaction:; l-iodo- I -methylcyclopentane heated in ethanol

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E2 elimination of 3-bromopentane with Sodium Ethoxide
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BH3 * THF
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Hydroboration Oxidation
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Alkoxymercuration-Demercuration vs Hydroboration
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