What is the angle of sp3
What is the angle of sp2
Length of a single bond
Length of a double bond
What is hydrogenation
The addition of hydrogen
What is a polar bond
is a type of covalent bond two atoms or more in which electrons are shared unequally
negative inductive effect
An atom like fluorine which can pull the bonding pair away from the atom it is attached to
a compound of one of these – e.g. hydrogen chloride, hydrogen bromide, etc.
electrophilic addition reactions
An addition reaction is a reaction in which two molecules join together to make a bigger one

Carbon having a positive charge


Sn2 happens best when
It is a primary alkyl halide
What encourages Elimination
heat, a concentrated solution of sodium or potassium hydroxide, pure ethanol as solvent
What is a ketone
markownikoff’s rule
The rule states that with the addition of a protic acid HX to an alkene, the acid hydrogen (H) becomes attached to the carbon with fewer alkyl substituents, and the halide (X) group becomes attached to the carbon with more alkyl substituents
Zaitsev’s rule
In elimi nation reactions, the most substituted alkene
usually predominates.
Hydroge natio n of an alkene is an example of
Anti Markovnikov happens when
Results when HBr is added with a peroxide; ROOR
Hg(OAc)2 and NaBH4
uses B2H6 to give anti markovnikov orientation for OH addition
Grignard reactions need
a solvent containing an ether functional group
HBr with a peroxide is
anti markovnikov
Allylic position
is a carbon atom next to a carbon double bond
Protic Solvent
protic solvent; is one that has acidic protons, usually in the form
of; 0- H; or; N -H; groups
Aprotic Solvent
aprotic; solvents; (solvents without 0- H; or
N – H; groups) enhance the nucleophilicity of anions. An anion is more reactive in an
aprotic solvent because it is not so strongly solvated
Polar; aprotic; solvents;
have; strong; dipole moments; to; enhance; solubility
Sn1 Reaction
The; SN 1; reaction goes much more readily; in polar solvents; that stabilize ions
hydride shift
Carbocations; often; rearrange; to; form; more; stable; carbocations.; This; may; occur
when; a hydrogen; atom; moves with; its bonding pair; of; electron s.; Formally,; this is the
movement of a; hydride ion; (H:-),; although no actual; free hydride ion; is involved.
Hydride Shift
methyl shift
Nucleophilic Substitutions

Give the substitution and elimination products you would expect from the following reaction:; l-iodo- I -methylcyclopentane heated in ethanol

E2 elimination of 3-bromopentane with Sodium Ethoxide
Hydroboration Oxidation
Alkoxymercuration-Demercuration vs Hydroboration
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