Oceanography Quizlet

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Definition of Oceanography
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the study of the oceans. Includes marine geology, physical oceanography, and marine biology
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Famous Marine Scientists
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Jacques Cousteau, Rachel Carson, James Cameron, and James Cook
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Average Salinity
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about 3.5 percent
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Salinity Definition
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Amount of Salt
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Salt comes from…
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river runoff
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With depth comes changes in…
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temperature and density
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Three Ways Water Moves
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Waves, Tides, and Currents
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Waves Definition
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the rise and fall of water, the build-up of water molecules
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Primary Cause of Waves
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Wind
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Secondary Cause of Waves
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Plate Tectonics
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Currents Definition
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the circulation of water
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Horizontal/Surface Currents Cause
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caused by the Earth’s spin
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Vertical/Convection Currents Cause
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caused by changes in Temperature and Density
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Upwelling Definition
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a vertical current that brings nutrient rich water to the surface
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Benefits of Upwellings
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It is beneficial for the food chain in the sunlight zone. Warm water rises bringing the nutrients from the ocean floor, cold water is pushed down/sinks.
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Tides Definition
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a change in the water level due to the gravitational pull of the sun and the moon
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How many high/low tides are there per day?
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there are 2 high tides and 2 low tides per day
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How many types of tides are there per month?
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there are 2 types of tides per month
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What are the types of tides in a month?
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Spring Tides and Neap Tides
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Spring Tide Definition
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higher high tides and lower low tides (more drastic changes in the water level), during the new and full moon
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Neap Tide Definition
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smaller changes between high tides and low tides (lower high tides and higher low tides), during the waning and waxing quarter moons
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The Order of the Ocean Zones (highest to lowest)
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Sunlight Zone, Twilight Zone, Midnight Zone, Abyssal Zone, and the Hadal Zone
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Sunlight Zone
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most life (and all plant life), about 200 m deep, epipelagic zone
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Twilight Zone
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mesopelagic zone, about 800 m deep (down to 1000 m)
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Midnight Zone
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bathypelagic zone, about 3000 m deep (down to 4000 meters)
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Abyssal Zone
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about 2000 m deep (down to 6000 m)
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Hadal Zone
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down to 11000 m, 5000 m deep (named after Hades, Greek God of the Underworld)
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Ocean Ridge
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Any section of a narrow, continuous range of submarine mountains (a specific ridge of those mountains).
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Abyssal Hill
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An abyssal hill is a small hill or mound that is underwater (of course) and rises from the floor of an abyssal plain (see below for definition of abyssal plain).
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Abyssal Plain
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An abyssal plain is an underwater plain that can be found between 3000 – 6000 meters below the surface (in the Abyssal Zone). It generally has abyssal hills on it.
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Volcanic Island
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A volcanic cone reaching (or reaching past) the ocean’s surface.
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Sea Mount
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A seamount is (along with a guyot) a geomorphic form developed by submarine volcanoes, so seamounts and guyots lie in chains of submarine volcanoes. Seamounts are generally at tall hill similar to the shape of a mountain or volcano.
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Guyot
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A guyot is (along with a seamount) a geomorphic form developed by submarine volcanoes, so guyots and seamounts lie in chains of submarine volcanoes. Guyots are seamounts that have had their tops eroded off, giving guyots a sort of flattened look.
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Deep Sea Trench
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A deep, narrow, steep-sided depression in the ocean’s floor caused by two plates converging in which one sinks into the mantle. They can reach anywhere from 6000 to 11000 meters in depth.
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Atoll
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Subsidence of a volcanic island with a growth of coral in a ring around it (a ring-shaped reef/island of coral).

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