Oceanography Prologue Terms

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Edward Forbes’s contributions to oceanography include
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-A proposed system of ocean depth zones, each characterized by specific animal populations -A systematic survey of marine life around the British Isles and in the Mediterranean and Aegean Seas
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Who developed the theory of atoll formation
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Charles Darwin
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What do the work of Sir John Ross and Sir James Clark Ross have in common?
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They both conducted deep sea bottom sampling and found life-forms existed at extreme depths
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Edward Forbes made a theoretical mistake regarding the
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-Presence of an azoic, or lifeless, zone in the ocean below 1800 ft. -Bottom samples from over 6000 ft depth in the ocean, taken 20 years before Forbes’s claim of an azoic zone, showed worms and other animals living at this depth.
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Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate
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Measures sound waves over distances in the ocean to determine water temperature
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Joint Global Ocean Flux Study
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A complex ocean biogeochemical research program
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World Ocean Circulation Experiment
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Uses chemical tracers to model circulation in the ocean and to obtain data to help predict the response of seawater circulation to long-term changes in atmospheric circulation
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In the latter half of the sixteenth century, many crews sought a trading shortcut to China around North America called the _____ passage
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Northwest
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Rank the ways in which early human societies interacted with the oceans from the oldest ways at the top to the most modern ways at the bottom
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1.) Fishing with the use of a barbed spear or gorge (a double-pointed stick) attached to a string 2.) Fishing with the use of nets 3.) Use of rafts or boats for fishing, exploring, and trading dried fish
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The ____ expedition is best known for its first use of the echo sounder
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Meteor
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Geological Oceanography
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Studies Earth at the sea’s edge and below its surface, and the history of the processes that form the ocean basins
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Physical Oceanography
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Investigates the causes and characteristics of water movements such as waves, currents, and tides, and how they affect the marine environment
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Chemical Oceanography
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Studies the composition and history of the water, its processes, and its interactions
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What was discovered during the voyage of the Fram?
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1.) Great plankton blooms occur in the Arctic Ocean 2.) The Arctic Ocean is deep-ocean basin, not a shallow sea.
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During the Middle Ages ____.
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1.) Knowledge of navigation increased including the development of harbor-finding charts or portolanos 2.) Shipbuilding improved and vessels became easier to sail
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For navigation purposes, Polynesians used careful observations and recording of where ____ rose and set on the horizon.
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Stars
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The methods of making scientific measurements of the ocean ____ from the nineteenth to the twentieth centuries
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Became much more sophisticated -Oceanography and instrumentation to study the ocean mushroomed during World War 2
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The Meteor expedition is best known for ____.
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Its first use of the echo sounder – The expedition occurred from 1925 to 1927
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The ____ were highly accomplished seamen who engaged in extensive exploration, trade, and colonization for nearly three centuries from about 793 to 1066
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Vikings
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Captain James Cook is known for being one of history’s greatest navigators as well as a fine scientist because he ____.
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1.) Carefully observed wind, currents, and water temperature, making him a founder of oceanography 2.) Made surroundings to depths of 1200 ft
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The 1769 Franklin-Folger chart of the ____ Stream current aimed to expedite sea travel between England and America.
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Gulf
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The accomplishments of Lieutenant Matthew F. Maury include ____.
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1.) Initiating a systematic collection of wind and current data from both U.S. and international ships’ logs. 2.) Publishing the first atlas of sea conditions and sailing directions.
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Deep Sea Drilling Program
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The first international drilling venture, beginning in 1968
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Ocean Drilling Program
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The second international drilling partnership, beginning in 1983
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Integrated Ocean Drilling Program
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A successor international marine drilling program, beginning in 2003
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The former Marine Biological Association, and now Scripps Institutions of Oceanography, is located in ____.
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San Diego, California
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Where did the seven epic voyages of the Chinese admiral Zheng He travel?
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1.) Across the Indian Ocean 2.) To Africa 3.) In the western Pacific Ocean
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The epic voyages of the Chinese admiral Zheng He, from 1405 to 1433, included ____.
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1.) Many large treasure ships 2.) A fleet of over 300 ships
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A satellite sensor for oceanography called the TOPEX/Poseidon, launched jointly by the United States and France, collects information on ____.
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The surface height of the ocean (that is, sea surface elevation)
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The Strait of Magellan was so named because Ferdinand Magellan was the first to lead ships ____.
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Around the tip of South America
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Amerigo Vespucci accepted South America as a new continent, not part of Asia as Columbus did, and a cartographer names the continent ____ in Vespucci’s honor.
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America
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Austronesian populations expanded southeast through the Philippines, and this movement was aided by ____.
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The short distance between islands and because the Austronesians could readily travel.
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What challenges faced Portugal’s expeditions to find new and faster routes to obtain spices and silks of the East?
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1.) Mariners believed that the water temperatures at the equator were at the boiling point. 2.) Mariners believed that sea monsters would engulf the ships.
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William Dittmar’s findings, from the information collected during the Challenger expedition, include ___.
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1.) Confirmation that the relative proportions of the major dissolved elements in seawater are constant 2.) The identification of the major elements present in seawater.
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The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration combined which of the following entities?
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1.) National Marine Fisheries Service 2.) National Weather Service 3.) National Ocean Survey
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Christian Ehrenberg, from results of sampling seafloor sediments, concluded that____.
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The sea was filled with microscopic life
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World War 2 caused the field of oceanography to ___.
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Expand significantly in order to solve practical military problems.
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Which of the following statements are true regarding Ptolemy’s world atlas?
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1.) It was the first documented world atlas 2.) His atlas listed more than 8000 places by latitude and lingitude
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Which of the following are ways that Alexander Agassiz contributed to oceanography?
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1.) He designed and financed much of the sampling equipment aboard the Albatross that greatly increased the haul of deep-sea fish specimens. 2.) He greatly expanded knowledge of deep-sea biology
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Using geometry as shown in the figure, ___ was able to very accurately calculate Earth’s circumference (276-195 B.C.)
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Eratosthenes
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Sixty-seven nations cooperated in the exploration of the sea floor from 1957-1958, dubbed the ____.
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International Geophysical Year
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The Austronesians were the first to populate ___.
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The Pacific Ocean Basin
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Which of the following are objectives of the Ocean Observatories Initiative?
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1.) To provide up to 30 years of continuous ocean measurements 2.) To collect data on climate variability, ocean circulation, and plate tectonics.
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Which of the following are objectives of the Global Ocean Observing System?
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1.) To provide detailed temperature and salinity data of the upper 2000 m of the ocean 2.) To better predict events such as El Nino
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To successfully engineer and lay transatlantic telegraph cables, information on ___ needed to be known.
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1.) Ocean currents 2.) Marine organisms that might dislodge or destroy the cables 3.)Ocean bottom topography
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A chronometer was useful in navigation because it ___.
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Established a relationship between time and longitude
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The image depicts ____.
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The 1769 Franklin-Folger chart of the Gulf Stream current
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The image shows the region inhabited by the ___.
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Polynesians
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A FLIP in the field of oceanography is a___.
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Floating Instrument Platform that studies acoustical signals in the oceans.
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What did Nansen discover about the depth of the Arctic Ocean?
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It was a deep-ocean basin.
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The Ridge Interdisciplinary Global Experiments were driven by the ___.
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Discovery of hydrothermal vents
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Compared to the nineteenth century, the twentieth century has___.
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Significantly increased the quantity and density of oceanographic data collected, especially as a result of satellites and remote sensing.
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Which of the following are findings of the Challenger Expedition (1872-1876)?
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1.) They found Bathybius haeckelii was a chemical precipitate produced by the reaction of the sediment with alcohol. 2.) They found one of the deepest depth surroundings in the Marianas Trench.
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____ was a mining engineer, marine scientist, Harvard University professor, and designer of the deep-sea sampling equipment aboard the Albatross research vessel.
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Alexander Agassiz
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The Marine Biological Association settled its permanent field station in San Diego and became known as ___.
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The University of California’s Scripps Institution of Oceanography.
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Captain James Cook is known for his ___.
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Three great voyages to chart the Pacific Ocean between 1768 and 1779
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Eratosthenes’s achievements include ___.
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1.) Calculating Earth’s circumference 2.) Inventing the study if geography 3.) Inventing a system of latitude and longitude
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Magellan’s crew was the first to ___.
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Circumnavigate the Earth

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