Oceanography Chapter 1 Test Questions

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who has always had a practical knowledge of the ocean? Why does this make sense?
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marine biologist because they study the ocean costal people
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what two developments helped increase the knowledge of the ocean?
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seamanships and navigation
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ancient pacific islanders used what three things to navigate?
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wind, wave, and current patterns
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the HMS Beagle’s main mission was to do what in a relation to oceanographic study?
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map, coastlines
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Besides the data he collected for the theory of evolution, what else did Charles Darwin explain from his travels aboard the HMS Beagle?
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the formation of the distinctive rings of coral reef called atolls
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Why were marine labs developed
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to keep organisms alive and work over long periods
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What was the first US marine lab
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Woods Hull, Massachusetts
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What does sonar stand for and how does it work
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sound navigation ranging, sonar is used by emitting a loud pulse of sound and timing how long it takes the echo to return from the sea floor
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what does Scuba stand for
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self contained underwater breathing apparatus
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Who was Jacques Cousteau
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frenchmen modified the apparatus, using it to breathe compressed air under water
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What five modern oceanographic technologies are being used today?
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satellites remost sensing technology, submarines underwater roots underwater vehicles
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What is the critter cam and how does it work?
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a compact underwater video camera that is attached to the animals themselves
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Nearly all the major advances in marine biology have come in the last 200 years, What do you think are the reasons for this?
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because of new technology
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Christopher Columbus
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Rediscovered the “New World” in 1492
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Charles Darwin
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Sailed on the HMS Beagle; wrote theory of evolution by natural selection collected barnacles
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Stone Age
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shells, harpoons, and fishhooks made of bone and shell were found during this time
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Leif Eriksson and the Vikings
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has a tom inscribed with a warning against eating poisonous pufferfish
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Egyptian Pharoh
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had a tomb inscribed with a warning against eating poisonous pufferfish
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Blackbird/ Golden Age of Piracy
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Edward Teach
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Ancient Pacific Islanders
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very good sailors and navigators (used the wind, waves and currents to navigate)
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Charles Wyville Thompson
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lead the first major expedition on the HMS Challenger that lasted 3.5 years; Very Important in history of Oceanography; so much information collected it took 19 years to publish and made 50 volumes of information
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Aristotle
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greek philosopher; first marine biologist; explained that fish use gills to breathe
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Edward Forbes
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dredged the sea floor; discovered new sea life and that different organisms live at different depths
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Dark ages
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knowledge of the oceans slowed and much information gained but the greeks was lost
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Ferdinand Magellan
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left to sail around the world (maps of the ocean and coastlines appearing)
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James Cook
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first sea captain to have a naturalist aboard
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Phoenicians
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the first sea captain to have a naturalist aboard
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___________ Using the sense before an experiment like sight, hearing etc
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Observations
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State the __________ questions No _______ is given
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1. Problem 2. Solution
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_________ Predictions _______ solution or proposing a ___________ to a problem. This has sometimes been called in the past an educated guess.
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1. Hypothesis 2. Testable 3. Solution
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________ Consists of a ______ group, an _______ group independent variable and __________ variable.
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1. Experiment 2. Control 3. Experimental 4. Dependent
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1. Control group _______ for comparsion 2. Experimental group __________ group which consist of an independent variable and a ________ variable 3. Dependent variable this is ________ as a result of what happens to the independent variable
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1. Standard 2. Test, Dependent 3. measured
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_______ section: Your results or ______ will either support or reject your hypothesis. Results are sometimes put in table or graph form. You just tell what happened in the experiment. Do not explain or _________
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1. Results 2. Data 3. Discuss
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_______ section: You will discuss or explain the results that you got. After that conclusions would possibly be a ________ Related _______ will be ________ by other scientist. The last step would then be a theory. A theory is made after a __________ has been tested over and over and each time you get the same results
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1. Conclusion 2. Publication 3. Hypothesis 4. Experiment
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World ocean covers nearly ____ of earth’s surface
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71%
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Oceans interacting with the atmosphere affect _________ on a global scale (exchange of heat and energy happens)
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weather patterns
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______ (unusually warm ocean temperatures) El Nino happens every 2-17 years- can cause ________ in Peru, flooding in Texas, and milder than normal ______ in the Midwest
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1. El Nino 2. Droughts 3. winters
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Marine Organisms Provide:
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Food (fish shellfish, and seaweeds) Research Medicine Jobs
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Marine Biology: study of the living organisms that _______ the seas and their _______ with each other and their __________
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1. Inhabit 2. Interactions 3. Environments
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Early studies of marine organisms -Ancient ______ and Romans -____ and the “____ of Life”
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1. Greeks 2. Aristotle 3. Ladder
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Aristotle: Greek ________ -Naturalist -Developed the first _____ (primitive) of ______ – he called it the (ladder of life) – he studied fish gills and learned that they function in gas exchange
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-Philosopher 2. System 3. Classification
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Pliny the _______ -Roman naturalist – his work – natural history (37 volumes) – contains references to fish and _____ (Clams and mussels)
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1 Elder 2. Shellfish
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That led to more knowledge of the oceans? – Better ______ and navigational ________ – _____ of new lands – Explorations of new ______
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1. sailing 2. instruments 3. exploration 4. sea routes
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Charles _________ – 1831 HMS _______ set sail – It was a 5 year ______ around the globe – Observed marine life and collected ________ -Proposed and explanation of ______ development- an atoll is ring shaped ____ that encloses a lagoon – During this voyage, he began to formulate the “theory of _____” by natural ______ (_______________) -1859- published his book “on the ______ of species”- this sparked more marine study by other scientist – Collected and studied _____
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1. Darwin 2. Beagle 3. expedition 4. marine specimens 4. atoll, coral 5. Evolution, selection (survival of the fittest) 6. Origin 7. barnacles
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Edward Forbes (in the early 19th century) – the ocean floor was recovered animals from the ____. before this, it was thought that living organisms could not survive in the cold and darkness of the _______
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2. deep 2. ocean depths
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Beginnings of modern marine science -HMS expedition exploring world’s oceans- Lasted 3.5 years- organized by the ______ in the 1870’s ** The HMS Challenger contained great _____ and research _____ -Brought back enough informations to fill ___ volumes -4700 ______ were collected and described -____________ expedition- many marine scientist still refer today
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1. British 2. Equipment, facilities 3. 50 4. New species 5. groundbreaking
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Beginnings of modern marine science -Marine Studies in the US – expeditions of _______ Agassiz 1877 – studied in marine animals (the brightly colored animals at the surface of the water became different colors as one proceeded deeper. The brilliant colors gave to way ___ and ____ and ultimately red and blacks. ** Colors are related to the absorption of different _______ of light at different depths*** – studied structure & formation of coral reefs
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1. Alexander 2. brightly 3. blues 4. greens 5. wavelengths
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Louis Agassiz ______ of Alexander 1873 – founded the 1st marine bio lab in the US – Penikese Island(off of coast of Massachusetts) Great to have the lab at the sea. Animals are within easy reach and could be studied in their natural habitat
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Father
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Beginnings of modern marine science Marine Studies in the United States Funding of the ______ marine biology laboratory
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first
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Founded during the 20th century: _______ of Oceanography in CA _________ Marine Laboratory in NC ___________ Ocenographic Institution in Florida
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Scripps Duke University Harbor Branch
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Marine biology in the twentieth century: -Fridtjof ________ Arctic expedition _ Sir Alistair Hardy’s Antarctic expedition (studied ____) – focus also on impact of human activities on the _____
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1. Nonsense’s 2. Whales 3. Marine
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Marine Biology Today – deep sea _____________ – discovering ties between __________ and marine environments – information sharing via the ________
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-submersibles – terrestrial (land) – internet

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