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Nutrition Digestion Quiz

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What is a bolus?
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Portion of food swallowed at one time
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A bolus is conducted past the diaphragm through the?
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Esophagus
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After swallowing, in what order does food pass through the regions of the GI tract?
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Stomach, Duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon
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Which of the following is a description of chyme?
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A semiliquid mass of partially digested food released by the stomach into the small intestine
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What is the primary function of the rectum?
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Stores waste material prior to evacuation
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What structure controls the release of material from the stomach to the small intestine?
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Pyloric sphincter
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What is reflux?
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Backward flow of chyme
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What substance protects the stomach lining from damage due to digestive juices?
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Mucus
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What is a function of hydrochloric acid in the stomach?
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Creates an optimum acidity
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Which of the following best describes the normal pH of the stomach?
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very acidic
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What is the fate of any enzymes that are present in the foods we eat?
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Hydrolyzed in the GI tract
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All of the following are features of stomach acid except?
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Its potentially destructive action on stomach cells is prevented by the presence of bile
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A solution with a pH of 7 is how many times more alkaline than one with a pH of 6?
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10
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The purpose of bicarbonate in the digestive process is to?
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Raise the pH of chyme
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Which of the following would not be acted upon by pancreatic juice secreted into the intestinal tract?
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Fiber
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What is not a component of pancreatic juice?
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Bile
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The colonic fermentation of certain fibers produces all of the following except?
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Secretin
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What is one function of the gallbladder?
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stores bile
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An example of an important function of the colon would be its absorption of
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salts
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Which of the following is not a typical component of stools?
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starch
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What class of nutrients requires the least amount of digestion?
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vitamins
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After sitting through a two-hour lecture in math, your stomach is growling. You have just learned about surface area and its role in mathematics. Your classmate points out that surface area is also an integral part of the absorption of nutrients
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through the presence of the enormous number of villi and microvilli
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Absorption of nutrients by intestinal cells occurs by all of the following mechanisms except?
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transmigration
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In the healthy state the lining of the small intestine has millions of villi, but in certain diseases the intestine appears “shaved” when viewed under a microscope. Which of the following would be the most likely consequence of not having these villi?
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Nutrient absorption will be poor
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What is the first vessel to receive absorbed water-soluble vitamins?
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Hepatic portal vein
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The hepatic portal vein empties into the?
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liver
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Which of the following products of digestion is not normally released directly into the bloodstream?
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fats
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When alcohol and barbiturates are ingested, they are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and transported first to the?
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liver
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What is the first major organ to receive nutrients that are absorbed into the lymph?
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heart
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Microorganisms in food that are viable when consumed and that are beneficial to health are known as?
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probiotics
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When consumed on a regular basis, which of the following foods promotes healthful changes of the microflora of the GI tract?
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yogurt
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The maintenance of the body’s constant internal conditions is guided by the principle known as
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homeostasis
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What is the primary role of the normal, thriving intestinal bacterial population?
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Helps prevent infectious bacteria from attacking the system
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Which of the following is known to be produced by small intestinal bacteria?
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Vitamins
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Which of the following is a characteristic of pancreatic digestive enzyme function?
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The pancreas can increase the activity of fat-degrading enzymes in response to more fat in the diet
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What nutrient requires the greatest time for digestion?
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fats
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What is the very first thing you should do if you suspect someone is choking on food?
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Ask the person to make sounds from the throat
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Choking occurs when a piece of food becomes firmly lodged in the?
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trachea
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One of the signs of constipation is?
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Fewer than 3 bowel movements per week.
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Inflammation of the large intestine is known as?
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Colitis
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What is the primary cause for belching?
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swallowing air
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Therapy for constipation would include all of the following except?
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decreasing fiber intake
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Which of the following is most likely to result from insufficient intake of fiber?
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constipation
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In general, which of the following is associated with the fewest adverse effects from the treatment of constipation in adults?
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ingestion of prunes
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Jim went for his annual medical check-up and was diagnosed with heartburn. Which of the following actions is most likely causing Jim’s condition?
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Defective lower esophageal sphincter activity
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All of the following are the chief causes of ulcers except?
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excessive caffeine consumption
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A person with chronic GI bleeding is at risk for deficiency of?
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Iron