Nutrition Chap 16

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The fetus receives nourishment through
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the placenta
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The time to focus on nutrition and pregnancy is
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in the months before trying to conceive.
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Human gestation is approximately
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38 to 42 weeks
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About 1 in 2 pregnancies results in a spontaneous abortion,
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often before a woman even realizes she is pregnant.
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Serious fetal malformations may occur when pregnant women consume very large doses
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of vitamin A
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The fetus accumulates body fat and mineral stores
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during the third trimester
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Infants born after normal gestation length and weighing less than 5½ pounds are labeled
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small for gestational age (SGA).
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On average, a full-term infant at birth
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weighs 7 to 8 pounds and is about 20 inches long.
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A small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infant
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– is born after 37 weeks of pregnancy. – weighs less than 5.5 pounds. – is likely to have problems with growth and development. – is likely to have medical problems.
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During the second trimester, a pregnant woman needs an additional
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350 kcal per day.
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Adolescents often have smaller babies than mature women. They are advised to gain more weight during pregnancy to meet
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the mother’s growth needs.
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The overweight woman (BMI >26 to 29)
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should gain about 15 to 25 pounds during pregnancy.
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Which component of weight gain accounts for the greatest amount of increased weight during pregnancy?
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The infant
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Weight gain in pregnancy should usually be about
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25 to 35 pounds
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An increased requirement for _________ during pregnancy is due to its role in the synthesis of red blood cells.
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Folate
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For the pregnant woman, the RDA for protein increases by ___ grams per day.
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15
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Fetal alcohol syndrome is responsible for
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– inadequate prenatal and infant growth. – physical deformities. – mental retardation..
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During pregnancy, erythrocyte formation increases. A serious anemia may result if _________ intake is inadequate.
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Biotin
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The focus of a successful pregnancy should be on
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– following a high-quality diet. – a reasonable weight gain. – regular prenatal care.
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The best guideline for getting adequate dietary folate is
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a diet that includes the 5-a-day servings of fruits and vegetables as well as being rich in synthetic folic acid.
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During pregnancy, women should be urged to ________ each day
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drink 3-4 servings of milk or milk products
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The practice of eating nonfood substances such as clay or laundry starch during pregnancy is
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pica
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During pregnancy the increased needs for zinc can be met by
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consuming extra protein-rich foods
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Under what conditions is the use of nutrient supplements advisable?
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– Adolescent pregnancy – Multiple fetuses – Poverty – Inadequate maternal diet
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A pregnant woman who is a vegan would need to take nutrient supplements for
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calcium and iron
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Spina bifida and anencephaly are examples of neural tube defects. Women who have had a pregnancy resulting in the birth of an infant with a neural tube defect are being urged to take supplements of ________ before a second conception to decrease the risk of these birth defects.
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folic acid
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The RDA for iron during pregnancy increases to 27 mg per day. To reach this level the pregnant woman will
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need to take an iron supplement
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Severe iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy may lead to
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– a pre-term delivery. – poor fetal stores. – restricted infant growth.
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Maximum calcium transport across the placenta occurs when skeletal growth is most rapid. This is during the
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3rd trimester.
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The most critical time for prenatal care is
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the first trimester
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Which group of pregnant mothers is most likely to produce unhealthy offspring
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Adolescents
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A maternal practice that can be harmful to the fetus is
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– a low-carbohydrate diet. – fasting. – smoking.
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Moderate to heavy caffeine intake during pregnancy
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– decreases iron absorption. – increases the risk of spontaneous abortion late in the first trimester or during the second trimester. – increases risks of low birth weight.
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The bacterium Listeria monocytogenes can be fatal to the developing fetus. What foods are possible sources of this bacterium and should be avoided by pregnant women
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Brie and blue cheeses
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WIC serves
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– children up to the age of five. – newborn and infants. – pregnant mothers.
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WIC aims to provide
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– high quality prenatal care. – nutritional care. – vouchers for nutritious food.
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To avoid constipation, the pregnant woman should increase her intake of
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whole-grain bread, bran, and fruits
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Edema during late pregnancy is a problem
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– hypertension is detected. – excess protein is found in the urine. – extreme fluid retention occurs.
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The RDA for nutrients changes during pregnancy
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for many nutrients, but not proportionately
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The gestational diabetes that disappears at delivery
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is linked to development of type 2 diabetes later in life
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The best approach to teenage pregnancy is
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prevention
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The physiological anemia of pregnancy is a result of
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an increase in the mother’s blood volume
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The ability to produce milk is affected by the hormone
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prolactin
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The main carbohydrate in human milk is
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lactose
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The milk ejection reflex in breast feeding is controlled by
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oxytocin
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The RDA for nutrients changes during lactation
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for many nutrients, but not proportionately
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A nursing infant is getting enough milk if the infant
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– has six or more wet diapers per day. – shows normal weight gain. – has stools that look like mustard.
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The breast-fed infant often grows more slowly than the formula-fed infant
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after 3 months
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Cow’s milk should not be used in infant feeding until the infant
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is 1-year-old
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Cow’s milk differs from human milk because
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– cow’s milk is higher in minerals. – cow’s milk is higher in casein. – cow’s milk is too low in carbohydrate for infant needs.
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The first fluid abundant in immune factors produced by the mother after birth is called
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colostrum
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A factor in human milk that keeps the infant from supporting the growth of some harmful intestinal bacteria is
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Lactobacillus bifidus factor
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Milk changes consistency during nursing, and after 20 minutes of nursing the milk is
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like cream
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Linoleic acid and cholesterol are high in human milk because they are needed for
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brain development
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Additional energy requirements for lactation are approximately _______ kcal per day
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400 – 500
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The diet for pregnancy is essentially the same as the diet for lactation. However, the lactating mother
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needs an additional serving of milk and more fluids
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The production of human milk requires
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an additional 800 kcal per day
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The advantage of breast feeding is
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– expense. It costs less than formula. – convenience. There is nothing to prepare. – sanitation. It is sterile.
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Inferior learning ability in childhood has been linked to
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alcohol intake by the pregnant mother
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“Eating for two” is a good guide to follow during pregnancy
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False
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Almost all physicians, dietitians, and nutrition scientists know that pregnant women will instinctively choose a diet providing all the necessary nutrients in approximately the recommended amounts
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False
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Smoking during pregnancy has been linked to preterm birth and low birth weight
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True
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It is a good idea to avoid or limit caffeine during pregnancy
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True
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Aspartame should be totally avoided during pregnancy
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False
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Breast milk is more nutritious than infant formulas
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True
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Breast size is an indicator of successful breast feeding
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False
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Milk production in breast feeding is determined by infant demand
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True
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Pica is
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consumption of nonfood items
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Placenta is
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an organ that develops inside the uterus that allows for the exchange of materials between maternal and fetal blood
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Progestins
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hormones that maintain pregnancy and lactation
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Prolactin
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a maternal hormone that stimulates synthesis of milk.
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Oxytocin
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a hormone that stimulates the milk ejection reflex
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Casein
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the major protein in cow’s milk, indigestible for newborns
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Lactalbumin
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a human milk protein
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Antibodies
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immunoglobulin proteins in milk.
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Hind milk
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human milk after a period of nursing
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Colostrum
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the mother’s first fluid, rich in immune factors and protein
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Meconium
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the first thick stool passed after birth.
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Lactobacillus bifidus factor
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encourages growth of beneficial bacteria in newborn’s intestines.

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