Nutrition Ch 25

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The term that describes abnormal or uncontrolled cell tissue growth is:
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neoplasm.
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The system that is responsible for the orderly operation of cell structures and functions is the:
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genes.
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An oncogene can best be described as a:
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gene that when activated causes neoplastic growth.
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Cancers that arise from epithelial tissue are called:
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carcinomas.
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The best description of sarcoma is a:
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tumor derived from connective tissue.
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A factor that has been shown to have a clear association with the development of cancer is:
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radiation exposure.
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People who immigrate to the United States eventually develop the same kinds of cancer as those born in the United States because of:
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changes in dietary habits.
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A relationship has been established between risk of breast cancer and high dietary intake of:
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fat.
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Emotional stress plays a role in the development of cancer via:
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neuroendocrine effects.
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The cellular components of the immune system that are derived from the thymus are the:
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T cells.
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The cells that are responsible for the synthesis and secretion of antibodies are:
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B cells (comes from Bone marrow)
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The cells that activate phagocytes are
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T cells.
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Physical changes in the body that result from impaired immune system integrity include atrophy of the liver, spleen, and:
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bone marrow.
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The class of nutrients that is primarily responsible for maintaining tissue integrity and immunocompetence is:
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protein.
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The surgical approach to treatment of cancer is used primarily to:
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remove operable tumors.
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The type of cancer therapy that can involve the use of radioactive isotopes is:
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radiation
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Major disadvantages of abdominal radiation include:
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adverse effects on bowel function.
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Chemotherapeutic agents arrest tumors by:
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disrupting normal cell reproduction.
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Types of body tissues that are most adversely affected by chemotherapeutic drugs include:
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gastrointestinal mucosal cells.
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Clients who receive chemotherapeutic drugs often develop:
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anemia.
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The term stomatitis refers to an inflammation of the:
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oral mucosa.
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The systemic effects of cancer may result in:
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negative nitrogen balance.
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The greatest interference with normal food intake is caused by treatment of cancer in the:
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head and neck
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True or False: Treatment of cancer in the head and neck often interferes with food ingestion, by affecting appetite, chewing, saliva production, sense of taste and smell, and/or swallowing. Treatment of the other types of cancer may or may not have nutrition-related effects.
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True
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Loss of taste sensation is most likely to occur when cancer patients are treated using:
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radiation.
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Abdominal radiation therapy can produce:
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general malabsorption.
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Clients who receive chemotherapeutic drugs often develop anemia because of:
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bone marrow depression.
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Patients who undergo pancreatectomy are likely to develop:
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type 1 diabetes mellitus.
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Compounds found in plants that help inhibit the process of carcinogenesis include:
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phytochemicals.
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The primary goal of nutrition care for clients who have cancer is:
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maintaining nutritional status.
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An appropriate amount of fat intake for cancer patients in later stages of disease is:
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based on maintaining adequate energy intake.
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To counteract the hypermetabolic state of cancer, it is most important for clients to increase their intake of:
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carbohydrate.
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For clients who have cancer, additional dietary protein is needed to:
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regenerate tissue.
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The vitamins that are essential for building new tissues are:
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vitamins A and C.
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Adequate fluid intake is important in the nutrition plan of care for clients who have cancer to replace gastrointestinal losses and:
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promote excretion of metabolic breakdown products.
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The preferred route of feeding for clients who have cancer is:
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normal oral intake.
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The approach to nutritional management of clients who have cancer that is usually tolerated best is:
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frequent small meals and snacks.
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Clients who develop a sore mouth will tolerate foods best that are:
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cool or cold.
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Dry foods may be helpful to a patient who has:
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nausea.
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An example of an appropriate snack for a patient with xerostomia is:
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yogurt smoothie.
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rue or False: Xerostomia means “dry mouth.” Patients with dry mouths will find it easiest to eat foods that contain plenty of liquid, such as a yogurt smoothie. The smoothie is a better snack than herbal tea because the smoothie is nutrient dense; herbal tea provides only fluid with no other nutrients. Granola bars and popcorn would be too dry for a patient with dry mouth, making them hard to chew and swallow.
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True
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For the client who has reduced salivary secretions and difficulty swallowing, the approach that is most likely to be helpful is:
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blending food into a semiliquid form.
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The kinds of food that can exacerbate nausea are:
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sweet.
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Patients with cancer experience nutrition-related problems caused by the disease process itself and by:
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medical treatment of the disease.
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The approach that is most likely to be helpful in diet planning with a client who has cancer is:
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using personal food preferences to select nutrient-dense foods.
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Dietary guidelines that may help prevent development of cancer include:
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limiting intake of high-fat foods
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The American Cancer Society estimates that two thirds of all cases of cancer in the United States are caused by:
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inhaled smoke and ingested food.

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