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Nutrition Ch 21

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Development of coronary heart disease is related to:
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fibrous plaques in coronary vessels.
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In the process of atherosclerosis
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plaque is deposited on the interior surface of the blood vessels
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The layer of the artery in which atherosclerotic plaque forms is the:
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intima.
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Plaque usually contains mainly of:
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cholesterol.
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Several types of blood lipoproteins are synthesized in the:
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liver.
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The function of lipoproteins in body metabolism is to transport:
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lipids to and from the cells.
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The class of lipoproteins that has the highest lipid content is:
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chylomicrons.
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The classes of lipoproteins that carry the most triglyceride by weight are:
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chylomicrons and VLDL.
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The class of lipoproteins that is most responsible for atherosclerosis and is considered “bad cholesterol” is:
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LDL.
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The type of lipoprotein that is considered to be protective against cardiovascular disease is:
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HDL
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The protein component that attaches itself to lipoproteins and has a significant effect on function is
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apolipoprotein.
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In nutritional management of high serum cholesterol levels, TLC stands for:
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therapeutic lifestyle changes.
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In patients with elevated serum LDL cholesterol levels, monounsaturated fat intake should be:
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up to 20% of energy intake.
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Foods high in monounsaturated fats include:
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nuts.
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According to TLC recommendations, a type of fatty acid that should be avoided as much as possible is:
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trans fatty acids.
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Fats high in polyunsaturated fats include:
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liquid vegetable oils.
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Desirable blood cholesterol level is:
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less than 200 mg/dl.
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The major principle that guides nutrition planning for clients who have coronary heart disease is:
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reduction of saturated fat intake.
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A good source of soluble dietary fiber includes:
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oatmeal.
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Soluble fibers are believed to be beneficial for preventing heart disease because they:
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lower LDL cholesterol levels.
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Therapeutic dietary options for enhancing lowering of LDL cholesterol include:
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plant sterols.
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Drug therapy should be considered for patients with hypercholesterolemia when
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therapeutic lifestyle modifications have been unsuccessful after 3 months.
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When blood supply to a tissue or body part is reduced, the result is referred to as:
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ischemia.
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A localized area of dead tissue is called a(n):
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infarct.
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Dietary modifications immediately after myocardial infarction are designed to promote:
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cardiac rest.
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Congestive heart failure can lead to an imbalance in:
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fluids and electrolytes.
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The stimulus for the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism is:
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decreased renal blood pressure.
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Congestive heart failure affects the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism so that:
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fluids are retained by the body.
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Nutrition therapy for clients who have congestive heart failure focuses on restriction of dietary intake of:
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sodium.
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The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism tends to promote the retention of sodium and the excretion of:
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potassium.
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The cause of essential hypertension is:
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unknown.
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An important feature of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating plan is:
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eating a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products
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The upper limit of normal blood pressure in adults is considered to be:
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120/80 mm Hg.
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The three types of body systems that maintain normal blood pressure are:
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neuroendocrine, hormonal, and enzyme systems.
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In the United States, the incidence of stroke is highest among:
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African Americans.
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The diagnosis of prehypertension, stage 1 hypertension, or stage 2 hypertension is based on:
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systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure.
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Medical nutrition therapy for treatment of hypertension includes:
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increased intakes of potassium and calcium.
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The main source of dietary sodium is:
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processed foods.
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Most strokes are caused by:
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blood clots.
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often accompanied by:
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malnutrition.
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The factor that guides nutrition therapy for clients with COPD is the:
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respiratory quotient (RQ) of each of the fuel nutrients.
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Patients who have experienced stroke may need to eat softened foods and thickened liquids if they have:
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dysphagia.
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Clients with COPD should have intakes that are higher than is normally recommended for:
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fat.
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The most important factor in development of peripheral vascular disease is:
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cigarette smoking.
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True or False? Recommended fat intake for patients with COPD is 30% to 45% of kcal. This is higher than the generally recommended 30% to 35% of kcal for the general population. The higher ratio of fat to carbohydrate helps reduce the RQ and reduce the workload for the lungs.
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True
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The amount of fluid recommended for clients with pneumonia (who do not need fluid restrictions) is:
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3.0 to 3.5 L/day.
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The objective of nutritional management for clients with tuberculosis is to:
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maintain adequate hydration.
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Elevated blood levels of C-reactive protein indicate:
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inflammation.
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An example of a meal high in soluble fiber is:
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split pea soup.
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True or False? Legumes, such as dried peas, are high in soluble fiber. Vegetables and whole grains tend to contain more insoluble fiber.
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True
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Omega-3 fatty acids help decrease risk of heart disease by:
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decreasing platelet aggregation.
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The food that would be lowest in sodium is:
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frozen green beans
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True or False? Canned, pre-prepared, and processed foods always contain added salt. Frozen green beans are frozen without seasoning and so these would be the lowest in sodium.
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True